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 Species Lists / Family Descriptions

As of 17 August 2017
712 Species found in our Sunshine Coast survey area


>>> Species list in PDF format Click here

- Occurrences - The number proceeding the species name is how often it has been seen. This survey started March 29 2003.
5 = encountered on almost every occasion, very common
4 = encountered frequently (over 50 times) its presence cannot be guaranteed, frequent
3 = encountered fairly often (over 12 times), unpredictable, occassional
2 = encountered on only a few occasions (2 to 12 times), unpredictable, rare
1 = encountered only seen once, very rare

- Location codes: (see map)
N1 N2 = Noosa,
A1 = Artwright Shoals
O1 = Old Woman Island
B1 = HMAS Brisbane wreck
G1 G2 = Gneering Shoals
C1 = Mooloolaba/Point Cartwright area
C2 = Caloundra area
C3 = Kawana stretch
P1 = Pumicestone Passage
M0 M1 M2 M3 M4 = Moreton Island
R1 = Redcliffe Peninsula

- Click here for the area of survey map. After each occurrence number is site locations ie. G1
- Click here for map of Old Woman Island dive site
- Click here for map of the Mooloolaba Rockwall area dive site

 



Cephalaspidea | Anaspidea | Sacoglossa | Umbraculida | Pleurobranchida |
Nudibranchia | Flatworms



 


Family Descriptions are brief and based solely upon external features and behaviour easily discernable by the fieldworker and/or from photographs.
Given this objective, they are only to be considered a rough guide to point the enthusiast in the general direction of a likely family (or families) and it needs to be stated that the final decision on a family depends on internal characters, particularly those related to the radula and reproductive system.

We are indebted to many authors of scientific publications and websites as sources for much of the information collated herewith and wish to acknowledge that fact. (Please refer to our Useful Resources page for a listing.) Constructive comments are most welcome.

 

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Cephalaspidea

Cephalaspideans (collectively called bubble shells) are the most primitive of opisthobranchs because of their external shell, basic gill structure, form of the radula and relatively simple reproductive system – though it is hermaphroditic like all opisthobranchs.
As the name suggests, the Cephalaspidea contains the “head shield slugs”, descendants of the original burrowing opisthobranchs.
Generally the head is shaped as a well-developed flattened shield and it is used for ploughing through the substrate. It is often wedge-shaped with posterior lobes.
The foot is often enlarged laterally into flaps called parapodia.
Most cephalaspideans possess a shell borne either externally or internally, but it can be reduced or lost altogether.
Although the Haminoeidae, Bullidae and Runcinidae have secondarily evolved an algal diet, the greater majority are carnivorous, eating foraminiferans, bristle worms or other molluscs.
Many have a grinding gizzard for crushing the shells of their molluscan prey.


Family Ringiculidae

The ringiculids possess an external shell that is quite different to that of other cephalasideans.
The small shell is white, glossy, sturdy, rounded, somewhat inflated, and conical with spiral sculptures but may be smooth. The shell has a large aperture impinged upon by up to four strong columellar folds on the inner lip, a considerably thickened outer lip and an anterior sinus.
Ringiculids do not possess an operculum but the animal can retract completely into the shell.
The head shield is bilobed, broad and short extending posteriorly and diagonally to partially cover the dorsal surface of the shell.
The eyes are deeply imbedded and may not be observable.
The foot is shorter than the shell and rounded posteriorly. Anteriorly it is separated from the head shield by a deep fold but merges with it at the sides.
Large defensive glands are located on the lateral edges of the foot and the posterior edge of the head shield.
The body is usually colourless or white and may have brown marks on the edges.
There are no external gills to observe.
They burrow through fine sand or mud.
Diet knowledge is limited but is believed to include foraminiferans and copepods.

They are preyed upon by aglajid opisthobranchs.


Ringicula sp. 1 - 2, M4 R1
Ringicula sp. 2 - 1, intertidal M4

Ringicula sp. 3 - 2, R1

Ringicula sp. 4 - 1, R1

 

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Family Actenonidae

The acteonids possess an external shell that is thick and sturdy with a prominent and elevated spire. There are numerous spiral sculptures that can be weak to strongly grooved. The aperture is narrow and the columellar sinuous with one or more strong folds. The shell of some acteonids is strikingly coloured and patterned.
The animal can be completely accommodated within the shell which can usually be closed by an operculum.
The head shield is notched anteriorly and divided posteriorly into two large lobes that extend back over the neck and anterior portion of the shell. The eyes may be visible at the medial base of the posterior lobes.
The foot is broad, usually shorter than the shell having anterior corners that may be angular or tentacular but there are no parapodia.
There is no external gill to observe.
The diet consists of polychaete worms


Japonacteon suturalis - 2, M4

Pupa affinis juveniles - 2, intertidal R1
Pupa affinis - 2, M4

Pupa solidula - 1, M4

Pupa sulcata - 2, M4

 

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Family Bullinidae

The Bullinidae contains a single genus, the Bullina.
They possess an external shell which is inflated in appearance, providing a capacious interior into which the animal can completely retract. It can be closed off with a thin operculum. The shell attains a maximum size of 20 mm. The shell is well calcified with a short, sometimes depressed, spire. It is sculptured with spiral grooves for its complete length. The aperture is large and rounded anteriorly, and narrows posteriorly. There is a small umbilicus and a straight columella. The white or cream coloured shell usually bears a distinctive pattern of markings consisting of red, brown or black bands or lines following the spiral sculptures, and may also have wavy axial lines in between.
The animal can be white or lightly tinted usually appearing translucent. The edge of the head shield, foot and infrapallial lobe is often of an iridescent blue/green colour.
The bullinids possess a large head shield in which the anterior corners are folded under creating a funnel to the Hancock’s organs. Posteriorly the head shield is well developed into two large lobes covering the front and sides of the shell. The eyes are visible medially between these lobes.
There is an infrapallial lobe extending posteriorly from the aperture and is usually visible behind the shell forming an exhalant siphon.
The foot is usually broader than, and extends posteriorly past, the shell. It has angular anterior corners and a broad and rounded tail.
The large gill is plicate and is usually well contained in the mantle cavity not being visible externally.
The Bullinidae feed on polychaete worms.

 

Bullina lineata - 2, G1 A1 M2

 

 

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Family Aplustridae

The Aplustridae, popularly called Rose-petal Bubble Snails, was known by the name of Hydatinidae until recently.
They are large and very conspicuous cephalaspideans due to their bright colours, flamboyant and enlarged foot and spirally banded shells.
The thin, external shell is ovoid or globose with a large aperture but even so the animal cannot withdraw completely inside its shell.
It has a large head shield producing a pair of broad and long posterior lobes framing the close set eyes anteriorly. With anterior lobes folded laterally the whole effect of the head is like that of a mask.
The posterior end of the mantle produces a large infrapallial lobe folding up and over the apex of the shell.
The foot is broad and delicate, and the sides are enlarged into what could be described as “unfurled parapodia”.
At times the large plilate gill may be visible protruding from the mantle cavity on the right side.

All aplustrids feed on polychaete worms belonging to the family Amphinomidae (fire worms).


Hydatina ampulstre - 1, intertidal C2
Hydatina physis
- 4, intertidal C1 C2 M4 R1
Micromelo undatus - 3, intertidal M2 M4

 

 

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Family Cylichnidae

The cylichnids possess a strong, external shell that is typically cylindrical, but it is ovate or even globose in some genera. The shell is usually plain white in colour. Although there are many species, they have a similar shell shape and the majority are less than 5 mm long.
The animal is usually small and unpigmented. Almost all cylichnids are able to withdraw completely into the shell. An operculum is usually absent.
The short head shield possesses a pair of flattened posterior lobes.
The foot is short without parapodia.
There are no external gills to observe.

All cylichnids are infaunal, residing just below the surface of the substrate.


Tornatina sp. 1 - 2, intertidal O1 M4 R1

Tornatina sp. 2 - 1, M4

Tornatina sp. 3 - 1, M4

Tornatina sp. 4 - 2, Intertidal

Tornatina sp. 5 - 1, Intertidal O1

Tornatina sp. 6 - 2, M4

 

 

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Family Colinatydidae

This is a new family (2015) coming out of molecular studies of cephalaspideans. (A new phylogeny of the Cephalaspidea based on expanded taxon sampling and gene markers. Oskars, Bouchet & Malaquias, 2015.)
The Colinatydidae contains a single genus, the Colinatys.
They possess an external shell that is unique among the cephalaspideans in being covered by a distinctive reticulated pattern of incised white squares but is otherwise translucent such that internal organs may be visible.
The shape of the shell is quadrangular (blunt apex), wider anteriorly and slightly convex sides. The aperture has a sharp outer lip and extends past the spire which is depressed.
The shells are small, up to 2 mm in the adult.
The animal is translucent white to dirty cream in colour and can be accommodated entirely within the shell.
The headshield is bilobed anteriorly with the head tentacles short rounded and widely spaced.
The foot is shorter than the shell.
Eye spots are prominent.

 

Colinatys sp. 1 - 1, C1

 

 

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Family Retusidae

The Retusidae are a family of small infaunal species possessing an external shell that is typically white and cylindrical in shape. The posterior end of the shell is truncate with the protoconch usually sunken. There is a long aperture that widens anteriorly and a small operculum is present in some species of the genus Retusa but it does not completely fill the aperture. The surface of the shell may be smooth, or sculptured axially, or spirally, or both.
The head shield is very shallowly bilobed anteriorly, and developed into two distinct lobes posteriorly.
The eyes, though present on the head shield towards the base of the posterior lobes, can be difficult to discern.
The foot is broad but short and never longer than the shell and does not develop parapodia.
There is no external gill to observe.
They are very selective feeders and depending upon species consume foraminiferans, diatoms and small molluscs.

They are preyed upon by the aglajid opisthobranchs.


Retusa sp. 1 - 2, M4

Retusa sp. 2 - 1, M4

Retusa sp. 3 - 1, C1

Retusa sp. 4 - 1, C1

 

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Family Philinidae

The philinids usually possess an internal, oval to elongate, whitish and fragile shell.
There is a large head shield, often with a groove in the midline. This head shield is broad anteriorly and either tapers abruptly or is truncate posteriorly. The visceral hump behind the head shield is longer, higher, and truncate posteriorly - either plainly squared off or extended into several lobes.
The foot is large though never longer than the body and its lateral margins are raised into well-developed parapodia.
Many philinids spend their adult life ploughing through the substrate surfacing only to spawn and so the muscular and often wedge-shaped body is well suited to this burrowing (infaunal) lifestyle.
There are no external gills to observe.
All infaunal philinids are white in colour, but those that spend part or all of their life on the surface are pigmented, ranging through to pale yellow or brown to orange sometimes with darker flecks.
Two or three large calcareous gizzard plates are sometimes visible internally, but they may be small or even absent. These are used to grind up their infaunal prey (various species of bivalves).


Philine angasi - 3, M4

Philine orca - 1, G1

Philine rubrata - 1, C2

Philine sp. 1 - 1, M4
Philine trapezia - 2, intertidal R1 New Record sthrn Queensland

 

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Family Aglajidae

The body is usually long and somewhat cylindrical in appearance and often strikingly coloured or marked.
A large head shield most often of a triangular shape possesses sensory bristles on the broader anterior edge near the mouth with the lateral corners frequently lobed.
The visceral hump extends posteriorly usually into long tapering caudal lobes often longer one side than the other.
The well developed parapodia arise from the sides of the foot to just cover the sides of the body or they may extend towards the midline and sometimes meet.
The shell is reduced and internal.
There are no external gills to observe.
Aglajids are all active predators on other opisthobranchs (bubble shells), polychaetes, nemerteans and flatworms depending on the species.


Aglaja sp. 2 - 1, G1

Aglaja sp. 3 - 1, C1
Chelidonura electra - 3, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Chelidonura fulvipunctata - 2, intertidal G1 R1 B1 C1 C2
Chelidonura hirundinina - 2, O1 G1 B1
Chelidonura inornata - 5, N1 O1 G1 C3 M2
Chelidonura sp. 1 - 3, intertidal C1 C2
Chelidonura sp. 2 - 3, M4

Melanochlamys sp. 1 - 1, M4

Philinopsis falciphallus - 2, O1 G1

Philinopsis gardineri - 2, C1
Philinopsis lineolata - 2, O1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Philinopsis orientalis - 2, C3
Philinopsis pilsbryi - 4, C1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Philinopsis reticulata - 2, C2

Philinopsis speciosa - 2, C3
Philinopsis sp. 1 - 2, intertidal R1

Philinopsis sp. 2 - 1, C1

Philinopsis taronga - 1, M4

 

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Family Gastropteridae

In these small cephalaspideans, commonly known as bat-winged slugs or dingbats, the head shield is short and triangular. Anteriorly the head shield is raised and folded into a long medial inhalant siphon that arches forward over the head and is sometimes (in the genus Siphopteron) supported by a medial rib which may extend past the siphon itself.
The posterior shield overlaying the visceral hump is large and elongate. On the dorsum there is a right lateral ridge that may continue diagonally and posteriorly to form a prominent short papilla (or two filaments) or a longer filament.
The shell is reduced, internal or absent.
The broad foot is somewhat longer than the visceral hump and evolves laterally into large, thin parapodia which meet or overlap on the dorsum.
The plicate gill may be observed between the body and the right parapodium especially in the genus Sagaminopteron where it is quite large, extending past the visceral hump posteriorly.
Most species can swim when disturbed by flapping their large parapodia.
Striking colours, combinations of colours, and or patterns are exhibited by the majority of gastropterids.
Many gastropterids are found living on siliceous sponges and it seems likely these sponges may constitute their diet.


Sagaminopteron ornatum - 5, N1 N2 C3 O1 G1
Sagaminopteron psychedelicum - 3, C3 O1 G1 New Record sthrn Qld

Siphopteron tigrinum- 1, intertidal New Record sthrn Queensland

Siphopteron makisig - 1, C1
Siphopteron sp. 1 - 1, intertidal New Record sthrn Queensland

Siphopteron sp. 2 - 1, C1

Siphopteron sp. 4 - 2, C3

 

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Family Diaphanidae

Diaphanids possess a shell, usually no more than 5 mm long, that is thin, opaque and voluminous. The shell is internal in the genus Colpodaspis. The animal can contract completely into the shell.
The head shield is slightly indented to produce lobes at the outer corners that fold up and out along the edge of the shell.
The widely spaced eyes are conspicuous dorsally and set well back from the anterior edge.
There is no external gill to be observed.

Colpodaspis thompsoni - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Qld

 

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Family Bullidae

The bullids possess a very thick shell that is generally ovate but can tend to be cylindrical and always has a sunken spire. The shell is sombre coloured and mottled with various shades of brown.
The animal can withdraw completely into the shell but there is no operculum to seal the aperture.
The front corners of the head shield are developed into rolled tentacles and these short tentacles act as siphons. The rear ends of the head shield are developed into a pair of elongate, triangular lobes that just overlap the front of the shell.
The eyes are obvious on the dorsal surface of the head shield.
The large foot is longer than the shell and provides small lateral parapodia folding over the neck and aperture of the shell.
There are no external gills to observe.
Bullids are strictly nocturnal, emerging at night from the substrate to feed on algae.

Bulla angasi - 2, B1 G1
Bulla punctulata - 2, B1
Bulla vernicosa - 2, B1

 

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Family Runcinidae

Most runcinids are small (less than 8 mm when crawling) and dark coloured.
They are probably quite common but frequently overlooked because of their small size and/or external similarity to acoel flatworms.
They have a smooth, slender and flattened slug-like appearance.
Their notum is undivided and overhangs all around.
The head shield and visceral mass merge without division.
The eyes are conspicuous dorsally.
They possess a posterior gill located near or around the anus.
The foot lacks any kind of tentacular or parapodial expansion.
The tail is longer than the notum.
The shell remnant may be internal, external or completely lacking.


Runcina fijiensis - 3, M2 New Record Queensland

Runcina sp. 1 - 1, O1

Runcina sp. 1 - 1, M2

Runcina sp. 1 - 1, intertidal
Runcina sp. 2 - 1, intertidal

 

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Family Ilbiidae

This poorly known family only holds three species: Ilibia ilbi in Australia, Ilibia mariana in the Marianas and Pseudoilbia lineata in New Zealand.
In external appearance members of this family are quite similar to those of the Runcinidae excepting they do not possess a gill or any shell remnant.
They are small and the body is brightly coloured.
They have a smooth, slender and flattened slug-like appearance.
Their notum is undivided and overhangs all around.
The head shield and visceral mass merge without division.
The eyes are conspicuous dorsally.
The foot lacks any kind of tentacular or parapodial expansion but may have a ventral posterior furrow.
The tail is longer than the notum.

 

Ilbia ilbi - 2, C3 C1

 

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Family Haminoeidae

Typically the animal is small. Haminoeids usually possesses a thin, fragile, smooth and translucent shell occasionally with darker bands. The shell shape is broadly ovate to cylindrical, and always widest at the midpoint and with a sunken spire.
The body can generally withdraw completely into the shell.
The head shield is broad with the posterior edge usually developed into a pair of lobes and with discernable eyes located dorsally close to the surface.
There is a broad foot, though it is shorter than the shell, whose sides are developed into parapodia that fold up to cover the neck and shell aperture often meeting or overlapping mid-dorsum. They may cup the shell to a varying degree.
A tail is often visible behind the shell formed by a posterior extension of the mantle (a metapodium).
There are no external gills to observe.
They graze upon green algae turf.


Aliculastrum cylindricum - 1, R1

Atys semistriatus - 2, C1, G1

Atys sp. 1 - 2, M4

Atys sp. 2 - 1, M4
Atys sp. 4 - 1, intertidal R1

Atys sp. 5 - 1, M2

Atys sp. 6 - 1, C3

Atys sp. 7 - 1, R1
Hamineoa crocata - 2, M4
Haminoea fusca - 4, intertidal
Haminoea sp. 1 - 4, intertidal R1
Haminoea sp. 2 - 4, intertidal C2
Haminoea sp. 3 - 1, O1
Haminoea sp. 4 - 1, O1

Haminoea sp. 5 - 2, M2, G1

Haminoea sp. 6 - 1, intertidal R1

Haminoea sp. 7 - 2, G1 M2

Haminoea sp. 8 - 1, M2

Haminoea sp. 9 - 1, R1

Liloa brevis more> - 2, M4

Liloa sp. 1 - 1, M4

Liloa sp. 2 - 1, C1

 

 

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Family Mnestiidae

A new family that contains the genus Mnestia (Ventomnestia is now considered a synomyn). The family was raised in 2015 due to uncertainty of phylogenic relationships (formerly in Haminoeidae). This family is considered distinct through DNA sequencing and the following features:

Although possessing ridged gizzard plates the presence of a radula excludes it from Retusidae and the radula formula does not match Haminoeidae.

The shell is small, thick, cylindrical and with coloured bands. Genera with a similar shell shape have white shells.

The following features are common with other families:

Distinct spiral striae are present throughout the shell and the inner whorls are absorbed.

The shell is truncated posteriorly.

The body can generally withdraw completely into the shell.

The head shield is broad with the posterior edge usually developed into a pair of lobes and with discernible eyes located dorsally close to the surface.

There is a broad foot, though it is shorter than the shell.

There are no external gills to observe.

 

Mnestia sp. 1 - 1, C1

 

 

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Anaspidea

This order is dominated by the Aplysiidae family or “sea hares”. Less well known and significantly different in appearance are the members of the Akeridae family.
The Aplysiidae are usually large, plump and have a distinct head with a pair of enrolled and erect rhinophores and large enrolled oral tentacles. If the shell is not lost it is reduced to a mostly internal plate over the gill and heart.
The Akeridae however, are considered primitive with an external shell not unlike the cephalaspideans and in fact their external appearance and lifestyle is suggestive of the “head shield slugs”. The akerids possess an elongate body without rhinophores or oral tentacles and burrow through the substrate.
The attributes that both of these families have in common include the possession of two glands that separately secrete a dark ink and an unpleasant smelling clear fluid for defensive purposes, and a somewhat similar digestive system anatomy.
All are algae feeders.

Family Aplysiidae

The aplysiids are commonly called “Sea Hares” due to their appearance.
They are usually of bulky appearance with a great range in size, 10 – 750 mm, as adults when crawling.
Their body form exhibits a distinct head with prominent oral tentacles and large, erect, grooved rhinophores.
In those genera where the shell is not lost at metamorphosis its remnant is retained as a plate over the mantle cavity internally except for a couple of species of the genus Aplysia in which the mantle leaves part of it permanently exposed.
Movement is achieved by a creeping action of the foot.
Some aplysiids are able to swim by flapping their large parapodia.
Most are well camouflaged among their seaweed food source upon which they are gross feeders and are often observed intertidally.
When disturbed many aplysiids expel a thick cloud of ink and an unpleasant clear fluid, from separate glands, for defensive purposes.

Aplysia argus - Click here for more - 5, intertidal C2

Aplysia extraordinaria 1, C3

Aplysia kurodai - 1, intertidal R1
Aplysia parvula - 4, intertidal G1 R1 C2 C3
Aplysia sowerbyi - 3, intertidal C2 B1

Bursatella leachii - 1, intertidal N1

Dolabella auricularia - 2, C1
Dolabrifera brazieri - 2, intertidal, O1 C2 New Record sthrn Queensland
Dolabrifera dolabrifera - 2, intertidal C2

Petalifera sp. 1 - 1, C1

Petalifera sp. 2 - 1, R1

Phyllaplysia sp. 1 - 1, C1

Phyllaplysia sp. 2 - 2, C1

Phyllaplysia sp. 3 - 1, C1

Stylocheilus longicauda - 2, Surface M2
Stylocheilus striatus - 2, G1 M1

 

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Sacoglossa

Sacoglossans (commonly called the “Sap Suckers”) are almost all herbivores that live in association with green algae of the order Siphonales, particularly those of the genus Caulerpa.
All sacoglossans have radula teeth that are dagger-like and which are used to pierce the plant cells so that the cell fluid can be sucked out and swallowed. The chloroplasts from the algae may be sequestered and “farmed” within the cells of the sacoglossans digestive gland. This ability has caused them to also be termed “solar powered slugs”.
A small number of sacoglossan species which lack a functional radula feed upon the spawn of other opisthobranchs.
The name of the order, Sacoglossa, is derived from another common feature that sacoglossans possess, a uniseriate radula, from which the older, worn and discarded teeth are stored in a special sac.
The more primitive members have an external shell into which the animal can completely withdraw e.g. the Volvatellidae.
The Juliidae, remarkably, have a bivalved shell into which the animal can completely withdraw.
Some have a reduced shell which covers the viscera only e.g. the Oxynoidae.
The majority of others completely lose the shell when the larvae metamorphose into the adult.
In the order Sacoglossa, the shell is never wholly internalised but as the shell becomes progressively reduced the body form becomes more elaborate. A variety of body forms are represented across the order - from limaciform, to aeolidiform, or even leaf-like.  



Family Oxynoidae
The reduced shell is thin and covers the viscera only. The animal is unable to contract inside its shell.
The colours range from pale green to dark brownish green, often with spots.
The rhinophores are auriculate.
The eyes are distinctive on the sides of the neck just behind the rhinophores.
The parapodia rise up from the lower sides of the body to cover, or partly cover, the shell.
These parapodia are small and exhibit papillae on the outer face in the genus Oxynoe.
In the genus Lobiger each parapodium gives rise to two, large, elongate lobes with the outer face of each being papillose.
There are no external gills to observe.
There is a distinct tail.
They feed on the green algae belonging to the genus Caulerpa and are very cryptic in situ.

 

Lobiger sp. 1 - 3, O1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Lobiger viridis - 3, O1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Oxynoe sp. 1 - 1, O1
Oxynoe viridis - 3, N1 G1 O1 New Record sthrn Queensland

 

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Family Juliidae
Possesses a two-valved shell into which the animal can completely withdraw. (Commonly known as the bivalved gastropod)
When crawling, the animal is twice the shell length of its shell, much of that length being its long and slender neck. However the pointed tail does not extend past the rear of the shell.
Juliids are pale to dark green in colour.
There is a pair of oral lobes beside the mouth.
The rhinophores are auriculate, usually cylindrical and joined at the base, with the eyes located immediately behind them.
There are no external gills.
They feed upon the green algae belonging to the genus Caulerpa and are cryptic in situ.

 

Berthelinia limax - 2, G1 M2 New Record for Australia
Julia exquisita - 1, intertidal C2

Tamanovalva sp. 1 - 1, C1

Tamanovalva sp. 2 - 2, R1 New Record for Australia

 

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Family Plakobranchidae
Generally the body shape is long and narrow especially when crawling, and is high in profile in relation to its width.
The sole of the foot is divided transversely into a short anterior section and a longer “visceral” section.
They have large, flap-like parapodia along each side of the body that extend from behind the head along most of the body length. These are folded over the dorsum often meeting in the dorsal midline but sometimes there are gaps where the margins are kept slightly apart. The parapodia are not used for swimming but can contain branches of the digestive system and function in respiration. These parapodia are sometimes enlarged by additional folding of the margins, or by possession of lobes or papillae along the margins.
Tentacles are quite small or absent.
The rhinophores are usually prominent and auriculate.
There are no external gills to observe.
They feed primarily upon green algae.

Elysia asbecki - 1, G1

Elysia bangtawaensis - 4, Drainage creek from Cobaki Broadwater, New South Wales, Australia New Record nthrn New South Wales - Found Sunshine Coast 1, C2
Elysia coodgeensis - 4, intertidal R1 C2

Elysia maoria - 5, C3

Elysia marginata - 3, M2 G1
Elysia obtusa - 1, intertidal

Elysia pusilla - 3, intertidal O1 C1

Elysia sp. 2 - 1, O1

Elysia sp. 4 - 1, M2

Elysia sp. 5 - 5, G1 C3

Elysia sp. 6 - 3, M2
Elysia sp. 7 - 1, M2

Elysia sp. 9 - 1, G1

Elysia sp. 10 - 1, M1

Elysia sp. 11 - 2, O1 G1 C1 M2

Elysia sp. 12 - 1, C1

Elysia sp. 13 - 1, G1

Elysia sp. 14 - 1, C3

Elysia sp. 15 - 1, C1

Elysia sp. 16 - 2, C1

Elysia sp. 17 - 2, C1

Elysia sp. 18 - 1, C1

Elysia thompsoni - 1, intertidal R1

Elysia tomentosa - 1, A1
Elysia yaeyamana - 1, M2

Plakobranchus sp. 1 - 3, C1
Thuridilla albopustulosa - 2, N1 G1 New Record for Australia
Thuridilla carlsoni - 4, O1 G1 C1 C3
Thuridilla gracilis - 3, M2

Thuridilla hoffae - 2, G1
Thuridilla livida - 2, M2 New Record sthrn Queensland
Thuridilla multimarginata - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Thuridilla neona
- 3, M2 New Record sthrn Queensland
Thuridilla sp. 1 - 1, G1

Thuridilla sp. 2 - 1, M2
Thuridilla sp. 3 - 1, M2

Thuridilla sp. 4 - 3, M2

Thuridilla sp. 5 - 1, O1
Thuridilla splendens
- 5, N1 N2 O1 G1 G2 A1
Thuridilla vatae - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland


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Family Limapontiidae

Generally small; less than 20 mm crawling length.
Limapontiids usually have a slender, tapering body which may be concealed by a profusion of cerata.
The anterior edge of the foot is rounded, or rarely, tentacular.
They generally possess long, simple rhinophores sometimes having a lateral groove at their base.
The eyes are located behind the rhinophores on the side of the neck.
On the dorsum, well behind the eyes, the pericardium can be observed.
The anus opens in this vicinity often on a papilla, but sometimes it is just a simple flat pore. Its exact position is a useful character for determining species.
The cerata are fusiform, and variable in size and shape - from long and slender to short and stout - and they may be numerous to completely absent.
Often the digestive gland can be observed within the cerata.
Most limapontiids feed upon algae with some eating the eggs of other opisthobranchs.


Costasiella kuroshimae - 3, C3 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Costasiella sp. 1 - 1, C1
Ercolania sp. 1 - 2, R1 intertidal
Placida cremoniana - 2, intertidal
Placida sp. 1 - 1, M2
Stiliger aureomarginatus - 3, O1 C3

Stiliger sp. 1 - 1, C3

 

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Family Hermaeidae

The general body shape may be slender or stout.
Length ranges from 5–35 mm.
The body colour of hermaeids can vary from transparent and colourless to heavily pigmented.
The rhinophores are auriculate with a distinct step towards the tip.
The eyes are located behind the rhinophores.
Oral lobes may be present extending laterally above the mouth.
The presence of the pericardium is indicated by a swelling immediately behind the neck.
The anus opens either through a long posteriorly-directed papilla or is flush with the neck.
The male pore is behind, and below, the right rhinophore with the single female pore just posterior to that.
The cerata vary from short, to long-fusiform, or even long paddle-shaped with branches of the digestive gland visible inside.
Many possess only a single row of cerata down each side alternately large and small.
Hermaeids feed upon algae.


Hermaea sp. 2 - 2, intertidal R1
Hermaea sp. 3 - 2, intertidal R1

Hermaea sp. 4 - 2, R1

Hermaea sp. 5 - 1, A1

Hermaea sp. 6 - 2, C3

Hermaea sp. 7 - 1, C3

 

 

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Family Caliphyllidae

Generally large, with a broad body that is rounded anteriorly but bluntly pointed posteriorly.
The rhinophores are forked (bifid) for varying sections of their length and auricular in most species with the eyes behind the base.
Oral tentacles are present, and are either rounded or pointed.
The cerata are very distinctive, usually being flattened and leaf-like or wedge-shaped. They can be either smooth or papillate. Sometimes they are very crowded on the dorsum. The cerata maybe autotomized at the slightest disturbance to the animal.
The foot is as broad as the body, and generally with a rounded anterior edge. In the genus Cyerce only, the foot is divided by a groove transversely at the anterior third.

The diet is generally green algae.

 

Cyerce bourbonica - 1, M2

Cyerce kikutarobabai - 1, O1

Cyerce nigra - 2, C1 C2 New Record sthrn Queensland
Cyerce nigricans - 1, M2
Cyerce sp. 1 P26931 - 2, intertidal C1

Cyerce sp. 2 - 1, O1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Polybranchia orientalis - 2, intertidal

 

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Family Volvatellidae
Volvatellids possess an exposed, thin, somewhat cylindrical transparent shell into which the body can be completely withdrawn.
The shell has a small, somewhat rounded anterio-ventrally-directed aperture which narrows to form a long slit that terminates posteriorly in a spout of varying length and diameter.
The neck and head project past the shell when the animal is extended.
The foot is short.
In the genus Ascobulla the head shield is formed by two flattened lobes divided by a mid-central groove and is only partially attached at its rear. There are no visible eyes.
The genus Volvatella possesses four lobes on the head (said to resemble oral lobes and rhinophores) and the eyes may be visible behind these lobes.
There are no external gills.
The body is usually white and the mantle is transparent or sometimes green, or (very rarely) orange.
All volvatellids live and feed upon the green algae of the genus Caulerpa.


Ascobulla fischeri - 1, M2

Volvatella angeliniana - 1, O1 New Record Australia
Volvatella sp. 1 - 1, G1

 

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Umbraculida

This is a group with a very small number of species.
In Australia there are only two families represented in this order and then with only a single species within each family.
The family Umbraculidae has Umbraculum umbraculum as its sole Australian species whilst the family Tylodinidae has Tylodina corticalis.
The main characteristics are possession of an external, flattened, limpet-like shell on the dorsum and a gill located on the right side between the mantle and the foot.
The rhinophores are hollow and rolled like a cylinder of paper.
They feed upon sponges.


Family Tylodinidae

The sole Australian species is Tylodina corticalis.
Tylodinids possess a limpet-like shell beneath which the animal can entirely withdraw.
The shell is of a flattened conical shape, radially ribbed and ovate.
The body is smooth, bright, yellow, and moderately large.
The broad foot has a deep transverse groove anteriorly and a large rounded tail.
There are two pairs of longitudinally slit, enrolled tentacles with the anterior pair connected to form an oral veil. The larger posterior pair is carried high on the head.
The large gill is bipinnate and located on the right side between the mantle and the foot under the shell.
Tylodinids are only ever found in clean water habitats.
They feed on sponges.


Tylodina corticalis - 5, C3 O1 G1 G2 M2

 

Family Umbraculidae
The sole Australian species is the large Umbraculum umbraculum.
It carries a flattened circular shell upon the dorsum that is much smaller than the body and which is most often covered in various forms of sessile marine life.
The bulky circular shaped body is covered in large soft tubercles that are neither retractable nor the bearers of acid glands. These tubercles are white whilst the body colour may range from red to brown to yellow even colourless depending on location and probably its food source.
It has a deep mid-anterior vertical cleft in the foot and body containing the mouth, oral tentacles and non-retractile penis. This deep cleft has to part to enable the broad radula, which does not evert, to bear against the food source.
The circular foot has a smooth and flat sole.
The body does not elongate when the animal is crawling.
There are two pairs of rolled head tentacles with longitudinal slits. The anterior oral tentacles are located either side of the mouth in the cleft. The other pair, the rhinophores, is larger, carried higher and have the eyes situated in between them. They protrude from under the shell and are the best clue to finding the front of the animal.
The gill runs from the front along the right side in a space under the shell.
The anus is located posteriorly.
Umbraculum umbraculum feeds on a variety of sponges and are reported to live longer than a year.


Umbraculum umbraculum - 3, C3

 

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Pleurobranchida

These opisthobranchs are commonly referred to as the “side-gilled slugs” because the single, plume-like gill is located on the right side between the mantle and the foot.
The shell is never external, and may or may not be present internally.
The oral veil is trapezoidal in shape and bears rolled oral tentacles at the edges.



Family Pleurobranchidae

Usually easily recognized by the plump body shape with a full and rounded dorsum.
There is no external shell but an internal remnant may be present.
The mantle may be smooth or evenly covered with rounded pustules.
Glands in the skin secrete acidic fluid for defensive purposes.
A broad oral veil lies above the mouth formed between the oral tentacles.
Both the oral tentacles and rhinophores are enrolled by virtue of a longitudinal slit.
Rhinophores may be carried close together on top of the head or spread to each side.
The plume-like gill is located on the right side between the mantle the and foot.
Locomotion is by cilia on the foot assisted by mucus from an anterior pedal groove.
Their diet varies among species and ranges from sponges to corals and anemones to ascidians.
They feed through a protrusible oral tube.
Most often seen at night or found under rocks or coral plates during the day.


Berthella martensi - 4, O1 G1 C3
Berthella stellata - 4, intertidal
Berthellina citrina - 4, O1 G1 M2

Euselenops luniceps - 2, C1
Pleurobranchus albiguttutus
- 2, G1 M2
Pleurobranchus caledonicus - 2, O1 M2 New Record Australia
Pleurobranchus forskalii - 2, C3

Pleurobranchus grandis - 2, C1
Pleurobranchus peronii - 4, O1 G1 M2

Pleurobranchus weberi - 3, C1

Pleurobranchus weberi juvenile - 2, C1

 

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Thecosomata

This order of opisthobranchs is one of two holoplanktonic orders that are collectively called pteropods.
The thecosomes are commonly referred to as "Sea Butterflies" because most possess two large wings for swimming that protrude through their shell. These paired wings are derived from modified portions of the foot so could be termed parapodia.
Most are small in size and possess a fragile bilateral external shell of various shapes or alternatively an internal pseudoconch of gelatinous composition.
Many feed by use of an expansive mucous web, the only opisthobranchs to employ such a method.
They live their entire pelagic lifecycle in the plankton.

Family Cavoliniidae
Cavoliniids are thecosomes, spending their complete lifecycle as plankton in the water column and are the most numerous and diverse of such holoplanktonic molluscs. They occur in all the oceans showing greatest diversity in the tropical seas but greatest abundance in colder climes. Most inhabit the surface waters of the sea down to approximately 200 metres.

The most prominent features of cavoliniids are their large wings that protrude from the aperture of their bilaterally symmetrical shell. These muscular wings are formed from the anterior portion of the foot. The thin shell, into which the animal can withdraw for protection, has lost the spiral coiling of the more primitive thecosomes and shows great variety of shape. The shells can be needle shaped, either straight or pointed, triangular or pyramidal that may taper posteriorly whilst others are bottle shaped or globular. Dorsal or lateral spines are present in some. There is no operculum and the external mantle can envelope the whole of the shell.

The head is small and ill defined with the depressed mouth dorsally located between the wings and surrounded by three ciliated lobes formed from the remainder of the foot. A pair of tentacles is situated dorsally in the neck region, the right tentacle being larger than the left. Their planktonic prey is trapped by use of a spherical web of mucus, many times the size of their bodies, which is drawn towards the mouth by the action of cilia on the wing surfaces and surrounding lobes. A small radula pulls the food into the gut. Cavoliniids are generalist feeders consuming foraminiferans, diatoms and dinoflagellates amongst others.

Only some, the Cavolinia, possess gills. These are secondary structures in the mantle cavity.

Although cavoliniids drift along in the planktonic currents they are able to swim for ascending and escape purposes by the flapping of their two wings. They are capable of buoyancy regulation and a number of features contribute to retard sinking including the large feeding web, the light shell, the mantle extrusions, and posture to increase surface area. The Cavolinia employ a temporary, gelatinous pseudoconch that combined with the extended mantle assists in arresting sinking.

Essentially hermaphrodites, cavoliniids exhibit protandric sexual development whereby they are initially males that develop into hermaphrodites and then later become female. The majority release free-floating egg masses that hatch into veliger larvae.

 

Diacavolinia longirostris - 1, B1 New Record sthrn Queensland

 

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Nudibranchia

The nudibranchs are the largest and most diverse order of opisthobranchs.
No nudibranch ever possesses a shell as an adult, though most possess a tiny, cup-like shell at the larval stage.
With exceptions, the gills are normally arranged on the dorsal surface usually as a circle (in dorids) or secondary structures such as the thin-walled cerata (in aeolids) may be utilized for the purpose. The notable exceptions are the Phyllidiidae and Arminidae, where instead the gills are secondary structures located down the sides under the mantle between it and the foot.
Nudibranchs often possess defensive glands in the mantle that produce toxic or repellent substances derived from their food.
Within the nudibranchs is a group - referred to as the aeolids - that use nematocysts obtained from their prey for their own defensive purposes.
Nudibranchs are to be found worldwide, but exhibit the greatest diversity in the tropics.

Family Hexabranchidae
Spanish dancers, as members of this family are called, are large and soft bodied with a broad and sinuous mantle skirt that is normally furled over the dorsal surface of the body.
They have peculiar, large, plate-shaped oral tentacles possessing papillae along the outer edge.
The lamellate rhinophores are clubbed at the distal end and are able to contract into separate pockets.
There are six, separate, compound gills on the posterior end of the dorsum forming a circle around the anus. These are contractible but are not able to be retracted into pockets below the mantle surface.
They are able to swim with dorso-ventral flexions of the body combined with undulations of the unrolled mantle skirt presenting a flamboyant display.
They have a wide tropical to sub-tropical distribution.
Hexabranchids are believed to feed upon a variety of siliceous sponges.

Hexabranchus sanguineus - juvenile - 5, N1 O1 G1 M2

 

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Family Polyceridae

Polycerids have an elongate and high body shape.
There is a much reduced mantle skirt the only remnant of which is the rounded frontal veil the margin of which often possesses tentacular processes (branched or papillate velar processes).
Sometimes there is a narrow ridge along the lateral sides of the body bearing a few papillae and tapering to the tail. In some the tail has taken on a paddle-like form allowing those to swim using this tail or by vigorous flexions of the whole body.
The Triophinae (e.g. Kaloplocamus & Plocamopherus) have pronounced tubercles arising from this lateral ridge. In Plocamopherus some or all of these tubercles finish in a globular-shaped structure.
In some species the oral tentacles are well-developed into wide lappets.
The rhinophores are lamellate, retractile into pockets that sometimes have a sheath.
In most, the gills are non-retractile however the Triophinae can retract the gills but none possess a gill pocket. Some gills are simply bipinnate or tripinnate and limited in number and arranged on the dorsum as a circle, an arch, or a row. In others (genera Nembrotha, Roboastra, and Tambja) the gills are carried as a high, prominent cluster midway down the dorsum.
Some polycerids, such as the genus Polycera, bear a few, large papillae near the gills. In the genus Thecacera these extrabranchial processes can be quite considerable in size.
Most polycerids feed upon bryozoans and their lifecycle is governed by the short life span of those bryozoans. Members of the genus Nembrotha feed on ascidians. The genus Roboastra feeds rapaciously on other polycerids.
Worth particular mention is the ability of several members of the Triophinae to produce light, bioluminescence, from their lateral globular processes, possibly for defensive purposes. This bioluminescence is intrinsic meaning it is produced by the animal's own biochemistry and is not dependant upon symbiotic bacteria.

 

Crimora edwardsi - 2, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Crimora sp. 1 - 2, O1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Kaloplocamus acutus - 3, O1 G1 C3

Kaloplocamus dokte - 1, M2

Kaloplocamus peludo - 1, C3

Kaloplocamus sp. 1 - 1, C1
Nembrotha lineolata
- 2, C3 O1

Nembrotha livingstonei - 1, M2

Nembrotha purpureolineata - 2, C3 C1

Nembrotha rosannulata - 1, C3

Plocamopherus ceylonicus - 2, intertidal R1
Plocamopherus imperialis - 3, B1

Plocamopherus pecoso - 1, C1

Plocamopherus sp. 1 - 1, C1

Plocamopherus tilesii - 1, C1
Polycera melanosticta - 2, intertidal R1
Polycera risbeci - 1, C1
Polycera sp. 1 - 1, B1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Polycera sp. 2 - 2, M2

Polycera sp. 3 - 2, intertidal New Record sthrn Queensland

Polycera sp. 4 - 2, G1 M2
Roboastra gracilis - 2, G1 M2
Roboastra luteolineata - 4, N1 O1 G1 C3 B1
Tambja amakusana - 2, O1 G1
Tambja limaciformis - 2, O1 G1
Tambja morosa - 3, O1 G1 B1 A1
Tambja tenuilineata - 4, O1 G1 C1 M1 B1
Tambja victoriae - 4, O1 G1 B1 C3
Tambja sp. 1 - 2, G1

Tambja sp. 2 - 1, B1

 

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Family Okadaiidae

A monogeneric family containing only the genus Vayssierea and perhaps only a single species, Vayssierea felis.
The body of vayssiereids is very small, less than 5 mm crawling length.
There is no mantle skirt.
The rhinophores are simple, smooth and contractile, but they lack sheaths.
They have no oral tentacles, but there are sensory patches each side of the mouth.
There are no gills, with gaseous exchange taking place through the skin.
The anus is situated halfway down the dorsum just to the left of the midline.
They have direct development.
Vayssiereids feed on very small, shelled polychaete tubeworms belonging to the family Serpulidae, subfamily Spirobrinae.


Vayssierea felis - 5, intertidal C2

 

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Family Goniodorididae

Usually the body is only quite small (i.e. less than 30 mm crawling length).
The rhinophores are long (especially so in the genus Okenia), tapered, and lamellate, sometimes sparsely so, and although contractile possess no pocket or sheath.
Their simple gills are contractile, but do not possess a pocket for retraction under the surface of the mantle. They form a circle around the anal papilla posteriorly on the midline of the dorsum. There can be as few as three small and simple gills.
The oral veil forms either flattened lateral lobes or a pair of long tentacles.
Species of the genus Trapania also have a pair of long extra-rhinphoral papillae.
The mantle skirt can be reduced to a lateral ridge which may have a few processes or may have a distinct brim that is sometimes enlarged into a flange at the level of the gills.
The dorsum can have a midline ridge with papillae that can range from short to very long processes either side of the gills.
The foot tapers posteriorly to either a rounded point, or it can be sharper and deeper like a keel.
They prey on bryozoans or ascidians.


Goniodoridella savignyi - 5, O1 G1 C1
Goniodoridella sp. 1 -5, O1 C1 New Record Australia

Goniodoridella sp. 2 - 2, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Goniodoridella sp. 3 - 1, C1

Goniodoridella sp. 4 - 1, C1

Goniodoridella sp. 5 - 1, C1

Goniodoridella sp. 6 - 1, C1
Goniodoris joubini - 2, C3 O1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Goniodoris sp. 1 - 1, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Goniodoris sp. 2 - 1, G1 New Record Australia

Goniodoris sp. 3 - 1, C3

Goniodoris sp. 4 - 1, C3
Murphydoris sp. 1 - 2, O1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Okenia brunneomaculata - 1, M2

Okenia hallucigenia - 3, C3 O1 G1

Okenia liklik - 2, C3 C1

Okenia pellucida - 2, R1
Okenia plana - 1, intertidal
Okenia rhinorma - 2, G1

Okenia sp. 1 - 1, C1

Okenia sp. 2 - 1, C1

Okenia sp. 3 - 2, R1

Okenia sp. 4 - 2, C1

Trapania euryeia - 1, M2
Trapania brunnea - 2, G1

Trapania gibbera - 1, O1 New Record Australia

Trapania japonica - 1, C1

Trapania miltabrancha - 1, C1 New Record Australia

Trapania scurra - 2, C1 New Record Australia

Trapania sp. 1 - 1, M2 New Record Australia

Trapania sp. 2 - 1, C3

Trapania vitta - 2, G1 C1 New Record sthrn Queensland

 

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Family Onchidorididae

Onchidorids possess a broad mantle that completely covers the entire body, is oval in shape and embedded with spicules. They generally have a flattened appearance. The exception is the Diaphorodoris genus which instead has a much reduced mantle by comparison and therefore the tail of the body protrudes significantly. The mantle in most is thick and covered with tubercles or long papillae.

The large lamellate rhinophores are able to retract into somewhat shallow pockets.

The gills are simple, pinnate and form a circle around the anus on the dorsal midline posteriorly and are only able to partially retract. The diaphorodorids possess a common gill pocket.

Encrusting bryozoans are the food of nearly all onchidorids.

Most onchidorids are temperate in distribution there being only a few tropical species reported. The lifecycle is generally considered to be annual.

 

Diaphorodoris sp. 1 - 2, C3 G1 New Record Australia

Onchidoris sp. 1 - 1, G1

 

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Family Gymnodorididae
The size of adults ranges from very small to large.
The body is soft and elongate, and it tapers posteriorly to a tail. The body may be covered with low pustules. Some gymnodorids have translucent bodies with the viscera clearly visible and the viscera become even more noticeable when they are engorged.
The mantle is much reduced with the skirt represented by a small ridge around the anterior end.
The rhinophores are non-retractile and lamellate.
The gills are non-retractile, small, simply pinnate and arranged around the anus as a full or partial circle or a straight line.
Gymnodoridids are most often observed crawling very quickly across the substrate on the hunt for prey, which is other opisthobranchs.

Gymnodoris alba - 4, intertidal N1 O1 G1 C1 C3

Gymnodoris amakusanum - 3, C1 New Record estrn Australia
Gymnodoris bicolor - 2, intertida New Record sthrn Queensland

Gymnodoris ceylonica - 1, C1
Gymnodoris okinawae - 2, O1 G1 C3

Gymnodoris nigricolor - 2, C1
Gymnodoris sp. 1 - 4, intertidal C1 C3
Gymnodoris sp. 2 - 1, G1
Gymnodoris sp. 3 - 1, G1
Gymnodoris sp. 4
- 1, R1

Gymnodoris sp. 5 - 1, R1

Gymnodoris sp. 6 - 2, R1

Gymnodoris sp. 7 - 1, M2

Gymnodoris sp. 8 - 1, C1

Gymnodoris sp. 9 - 1, C1

Gymnodoris sp. 10 - 2, C1

Gymnodoris sp. 11 - 1, R1

Gymnodoris sp. 12 - 2, R1

Gymnodoris sp. 13 - 1, C1

Gymnodoris sp. 14 - 1, C1

Gymnodoris sp. 15 - 1, C1

Gymnodoris sp. 16 - 2, intertidal R1

Gymnodoris sp. 17 - 1, intertidal R1

 

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Family Aegiridae

Elongate and usually high bodied nudibranchs with a tough body wall thickened with spicules making some very rigid to touch.
In some species there is a complete loss of the mantle skirt and they possess small rounded or irregular tubercles studded over the body. In others, it is reduced to a minimal anterior ridge plus a row of prominent tubercles around the edge of the body. There are similar tubercles over the rest of the body.
The rhinophores are smooth and can retract into either raised sheaths or pockets that have covering flaps.
The gills and their protective structures are of two types. They can be bipinnate or tripinnate and protected by a substantial anterior tubercular transverse ridge, or else simple or tripinnate and surrounded by a group of tubercles.
All aegirids feed upon calcareous sponges and all are slow movers.


Aegires citrinus
- 4, N1 O1 G1 C3

Aegires exeches - 2, M2 Our 500th species 4 were found!
Aegires flores - 3, O1 G1 New Record Australia
Aegires gardineri - 4, G1 O1 M2 C3
Aegires hapsis - 2, G1 New Record Australia
Aegires incusus - 2, G1 New Record Australia
Aegires pruvotfolae - 1, intertidal
Aegires villosus - 3, O1 G1 C3

 

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Family Actinocyclidae

Actinocyclids generally have an ovoid shape, but they can look extended when crawling.
The dorsum is uniformly convex in profile. It can be smooth and covered with many small pustules, or even with large tubercles but does not have the spectacular network of spicules exhibited by the similar looking discodorids.
The mantle is larger than the foot.
The rhinophores are bulbous, lamellate, and retractile.
The gills form a tight, circular cluster like a goblet around the anal papilla at the posterior end of the dorsum and they can retract into a pocket below the mantle.
Actinocyclids are usually very cryptic upon their sponge food source.


Actinocyclus verrucosus - 3, intertidal O1 G1
Hallaxa cryptica - 2, intertidal
Hallaxa fuscescens - 2, intertidal New Record sthrn Queensland
Hallaxa iju - 2, intertidal
Hallaxa indecora - 1, G1
Hallaxa translucens - 2, G1 New Record Australia

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Family Cadlinidae

The members of the Cadlinidae family have only recently been extracted from the Chromodorididae family and the composition is not entirely settled. The family is defined by internal characters, and externally cadlinids resemble small members of the Dorididae, Discodorididae or Chromodorididae.

In general, the Cadlinidae has an ovate shape that can be elongated when crawling. The dorsum is convex in profile.

The mantle is larger than the foot and completely covers the animal except in some species where the posterior tip of the foot is exposed. The mantle tissue contains spicules giving it a toughened appearance. The mantle usually also possesses low rounded tubercles on the surface and many microscopic glands scattered all over. Some species also have large sub-marginal mantle glands.

The rhinophores are lamellate and can retract into separate pockets.

The simple, sometimes complex, gills form a circle around the anus and are able to retract into a pocket beneath the mantle.

Generally the Cadlina are plain in appearance being white or pale coloured sometimes with a coloured mantle margin and gill and rhinophore pockets. The Cadlina are usually found in temperate to polar zones, though the Aldisa species are tropical and somewhat more colourful.

 

Cadlina sp. 1 - 1, G1 New Record Australia

 

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Family Chromodorididae
The Chromodorididae are a very large family of dorid nudibranchs. They range in size from very small to very large (<5 mm to >150 mm)
The body is usually smooth with a thin skin, elongate-ovate in shape with the mantle overlapping the foot except for the rear of the foot (the tail). Having said that, there is a graduation through several genera where the mantle skirt becomes progressively reduced and the body wall correspondingly thickens up considerably in lieu (e.g. ChromodorisHypselodorisRisbecia Ceratosoma).
The mantle contains special glands around the margin which store, as a defensive mechanism, toxic anti-feedant chemicals obtained from the sponge prey.
The rhinophores and gills can retract into pockets.
The rhinophores possess lamellate clubs.
The gills are usually simple (unbranched) or occasionally complex (bipinnate or tripinnate).
The chromodoridids are often elaborately patterned and coloured on the mantle and these colours can be repeated on the upper surface of the foot.

 

Ardeadoris angustolutea - 3, G1, M2
Ardeadoris averni - 2, C3 O1
Ardeadoris carlsoni
- 2, intertidal O1

Ardeadoris egretta - 3, O1 G1

Ardeadoris electra - 2, O1 G1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Ardeadoris rubroannulata - 3, O1 G1 M2

Ardeadoris sp. 1 - 2, G1

Ardeadoris sp. 2 - 5, N1 N2 O1 G1 G2 C3 A1

Ardeadoris symmetrica - 1, G1 New Record Australia
Cadlinella ornatissima - 3, O1 G1 C3

Ceratosoma amoenum - 2, M0

Ceratosoma sp. 1 - 2, G1
Ceratosoma tenue - 2, O1 G1 C3
Ceratosoma trilobatum - 4, N1 C1 M0 M4
Chromodoris annae - 3, N1 O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Chromodoris aspersa - 2, intertidal O1 M2

Chromodoris boucheti - 1, M2
Chromodoris burni - 3, intertidal O1 G1 M2
Chromodoris colemani - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Chromodoris elisabethina - 5, N1 N2 O1 G1 G2 C3 M2 M3 A1

Chromodoris elisabethina light - 2, O1 G1
Chromodoris kuiteri - 5, intertidal N1 N2 O1 G1 C3 M2 M3 A1
Chromodoris lochi - 4, O1 G1 G2 M2
Chromodoris magnifica - 2, G1
Chromodoris striatella - 4, intertidal O1 G1
Chromodoris strigata - 3, M1 M2
Chromodoris willani - 2, G1 N2 New Record Australia
Chromodoris sp. 1 - 4, N1 O1 G1

Chromodoris sp. 2 - 2, O1 G1

Chromodoris sp. 3 - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Chromodoris sp. 4 - 2, O1

Diversidoris aurantionodulosa - 2, G1 C3 A1

Diversidoris crocea - 3, O1 G1

Diversidoris flava - 3, G1 O1

Diversidoris sp. 1 - 1, O1

Doriprismatica atromarginata - 5, intertidal N1 N2 O1 G1 C2 C3 M2

Doriprismatica dendrobranchia - 1, N1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Doriprismatica sibogae - 2, N1 G2
Glossodoris aeruginosa - 2, N1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Glossodoris cincta - 3, O1 G1 M2
Glossodoris hikuerensis - 2, O1 G1

Glossodoris rufomarginata - 2, G1 M2
Glossodoris vespa - 5, N1 O1 G1 G2 C3 A1 Endemic sthrn Queensland
Glossodoris sp. 1 - 2, O1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Glossodoris sp. 3 - 2, O1

Glossodoris sp. 4 - 2, O1 New Record Australia

Goniobranchus albonares - 4, O1 C1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Goniobranchus alius- 1, M2

Goniobranchus aureopurpureus - 3, intertidal C2 C3
Goniobranchus coi - 3, O1 G1
Goniobranchus collingwoodi - 3, O1 C1 C3 G1 M2

Goniobranchus conchyliatus - 2, O1
Goniobranchus daphne - 5, intertidal N1 O1 C1 C3 B1
Goniobranchus decorus - 5, intertidal O1 G1 M2

Goniobranchus geometricus - 4, N1 O1 G1 C3 C1 B1

Goniobranchus kuniei - 2, G1 O1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Goniobranchus leopardus - 3, O1 G1

Goniobranchus reticulatus - 3, O1 G1 C3 B1

Goniobranchus roboi - 2, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Goniobranchus rufomaculatus - 2, O1 B1

Goniobranchus sp. 1 - 1, O1 New Record Australia

Goniobranchus sp. 2 - 1, O1

Goniobranchus sp. 3 - 2, O1 M2

Goniobranchus sp. 4 - 2, C3

Goniobranchus sp. 5 - 1, C1

Goniobranchus splendidus - 5, intertidal N1 O1 G1 G2 C3 M2 B1 A1

Goniobranchus tinctorius - 3, O1 G1 M2

Goniobranchus verrieri - 5, O1 G1 C3

Goniobranchus vibratus - 1, G1

Hypselodoris apolegma - 2, C3 G1
Hypselodoris babai - 1, O1

Hypselodoris bennetti - 1, M2
Hypselodoris bullockii
- 3, O1 G1 C3 M2 A1
Hypselodoris emma - 3, O1 G1 C1 C3 M2 B1

Hypselodoris godeffroyana - 3, O1 G1 M2

Hypselodoris iacula - 1, M2 New Record Australia
Hypselodoris jacksoni - 5, N1 N2 O1 G1 G2 C1 C3 M2 B1 A1
Hypselodoris kanga - 4, N1 C3 G1 M2 New Record sthrn Australia

Hypselodoris kanga 2 - 2, B1 C3
Hypselodoris maculosa - 4, O1 G1 M2
Hypselodoris maritima - 4, intertidal N1 O1 G1 C1
Hypselodoris obscura
- 5, intertidal N2 O1 G1 C3 C1 C3 C3 R1 M2 B1

Hypselodoris placida - 2, C3
Hypselodoris sagamiensis - 3, O1 G1 C2 New Record Australia

Hypselodoris tryoni - 3, O1 G1 C3 M2
Hypselodoris whitei - 3, N1 O1 G1 C1 C3 M2 A1
Hypselodoris zephyra - 3, O1 G1 C1 C3
Hypselodoris sp. 2 - 3, O1 G1 A1
Hypselodoris sp. 3 - 1, G1

Hypselodoris sp. 4 - 1, M2

Hypselodoris sp. 5 - 1, M2

Hypselodoris sp. 6 - 2, O1 G1

Mexichromis aurora - 2, G1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland
Mexichromis festiva - 4, intertidal N1 N2 C2 C3 O1
Mexichromis macropus - 3, C3 C2 G1 B1

Mexichromis mariei - 2, O1

Mexichromis pusilla - 3, O1 G1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Mexichromis trilineata - 3, G1 G2

Miamira magnifica - juvenile - 3, N1 N2 O1 G1 C3
Miamira moloch - 2, O1 G1 C3
Miamira sinuata - 2, O1

Thorunna australis - 2, G1
Thorunna daniellae - 3, N1 G1 M2
Thorunna florens - 1, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Thorunna furtiva - 1, G1
Thorunna halourga - 2, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Thorunna montrouzieri - 1, M2 New Record Australia
Thorunna sp. 1 - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Qld

Thorunna sp. 2 - 1, M2

Thorunna sp. 3 - 1, C3

Thorunna sp. 4 - 1, M2

Thorunna sp. 5 - 1, G1

Verconia alboannulata - 3, O1 G1 M1

Verconia decussata - 2, O1, G1
Verconia haliclona - 2, intertidal N1 C3 New Record sthrn Queensland
Verconia laboutei
- 3, O1 G1
Verconia norba - 3, O1 G1 C3
Verconia romeri - 3, O1 G1 B1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Verconia simplex - 4, intertidal O1 G1 C3 C1

Verconia sp. 2 -2, C3 G1

Verconia varians - 2, M2
Verconia verconiforma - 2, O1 New Record sthrn Queensland


 

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Family Dorididae

Usually ovate in shape, some tending to elongate with a broad mantle skirt.
The mantle is thick and reinforced with a network of spicules. It is frequently covered with pustules or tubercles.
The rhinophores are lamellate, sometimes with raised sheaths, and they can retract into pockets whose margins are either smooth or (rarely) carry pustules or papillae.
The usually tripinnate gills can retract beneath the mantle into a pocket that also contains the anal papilla. In some species the gills can be compressed posteriorly like a fan and topped by a notal flap.
Doridids are often well camouflaged upon their sponge prey.


Doris immonda - 2, intertidal G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Doris pecten - 2, intertidal G1 C2

Doris sp. 1 - 2, O1 G1 M0 A1

Doris viridis - 2, O1 G1

 

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Family Discodorididae

Discodorids typically have an ovate body that in most is usually quite flattened in profile however some genera do present a high dorsum.
The mantle is broad and thick with the skirt usually covering the whole body (including the tail) and containing spicules arranged in complex networks. There is a variety of mantle surface textures including smooth, ridged, tuberculate, or even pustulose. Sometimes the raised tubercles are girdled by a circle of spicules surrounding a central sensory structure and this whole organ is called a caryophyllidium. Small irregularly situated defensive glands are also present on the mantle a short distance in from the margin.
The head is usually small and the distinct oral tentacles vary in form from conical, to tentacular, to large and flattened.
The rhinophores are retractable into separate pockets often with raised sheaths and are lamellate. These pockets can have rims that are smooth, pustulose or papillate.
The gills are located posteriorly on the dorsum, are usually tripinnate, and are able to retract into a pocket which can be protected by a raised sheath.
The foot is large and all discodorids have a lateral split anteriorly producing an upper and lower lip with a vertical split in the upper lip giving left and right halves (philtrum).
All feed upon sponges, with each species having a preference usually for one species of sponge only.
Many species of the family Discodorididae are found intertidally.


Atagema albata - 2, intertidal O1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Atagema ornata - 2, O1 G1

Atagema sp. 1 - 1, intertidal

Atagema sp. 2 - 1, O1

Atagema sp. 3 - 1, C1
Atagema spongiosa - 2, G1 C1

Carminodoris estrelyado - 1, C3
Carminodoris nodulosa - 2, intertidal O1 G1 C2 C3 New Record sthrn Qld

Carminodoris sp. 1 - 1, C3

Carminodoris sp. 2 - 1, M2

Carminodoris sp. 3 - 1, C1

Discodoris boholiensis - 1, C3 New Record sthrn Qld

Discodoris cebuensis - 2, C3 O1 New Record Australia

Discodoris coerulescens - 1, A1

Discodoris lilacina - 3, intertidal G1 C2
Discodoris sp. 1 - 3, intertidal
Discodoris sp. 3 - 1, O1

Discodoris sp. 4 - 1, G1
Geitodoris sp. 1 - 1, G1

Geitodoris sp. 2 - 1, G1
Halgerda albocristata - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Halgerda aurantiomaculata - 3, O1 G1 M2

Halgerda brunneomaculata - 1, M2

Halgerda elegans - 1, O1 G1

Halgerda sp. 1 - 1, O1

Halgerda sp. 2 - 1, M2

Halgerda sp. 3 - 3, O1 G1

Halgerda tessellata - 2, O1 G1
Halgerda willeyi - 1, O1
Jorunna funebris - 2, O1 G1
Jorunna pantherina
- 2, intertidal

Jorunna parva - 2, O1 G1
Jorunna ramicola - 2, intertidal C1
Jorunna sp. 1 - 1, intertidal

Jorunna sp. 2 - 2, O1 C3

Jorunna sp. 3 - 3, N1 O1 G1 C1 C3 B1 M2

Jorunna sp. 5 - 1, C3

Jorunna sp. 6 - 1, C3

Paradoris dubia - 1, O1

Peltodoris sp. 1 - 1, intertidal
Platydoris cruenta - 2, G1

Platydoris ellioti - 1, C1

Platydoris formosa - 2, O1 G1

Platydoris inframaculata - 1, G1

Platydoris inornata - 1, G1
Platydoris sabulosa - 1, O1 New Record Australia

Platydoris sanguinea - 1, C3
Rostanga arbutus - 2, intertidal O1
Rostanga bifurcata - 2, intertidal

Rostanga crawfordi - 1, C3

Rostanga sp. 1 - 1, C1

Rostanga sp. 2 - 2, O1 C3
Sclerodoris apiculata - 1, intertidal

Sclerodoris coriacea - 1, G1

Sclerodoris tuberculata - 1, C2
Sclerodoris sp. 1 - 1, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Sclerodoris sp. 2 - 1, G1
Sclerodoris sp. 3 - 1, intertidal
Sclerodoris sp. 4 - 1, O1

Sclerodoris sp. 5 - 1, M2

Sclerodoris sp. 6 - 1, M2

Sclerodoris sp. 7 - 1, M2 New Record Australia

Sclerodoris sp. 8 - 1, G1

Sclerodoris sp. 9 - 1, C1

Sclerodoris sp. 10 - 2, intertidal C1

Sclerodoris tarka - 1, intertidal C2

Sebadoris fragilis - 4, intertidal

Thordisa albomacula - 1, C1

Thordisa tahala - 2, G1

Thordisa verrucosa - 1, intertidal C2

Thordisa villosa - 1, C1

 

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Family Dendrodorididae
The dendrodorids are large and moderately to extremely elongate, soft-bodied dorids.
The mantle has a broad skirt and is usually smooth but its surface can be pustulose or tuberculate.
The leading edge of the foot is split transversely with the upper portion forming a cavity into which the mouth opens.
The lamellate rhinophores end in a distinct club, and they can be contracted into separate pockets.
The complex (usually tripinnate) gills form a circle around the anus towards the posterior end of the dorsum (sometimes extremely so) and they can retract completely into a pocket beneath the mantle.
A major characteristic of this family is the loss of radula and jaws and possession of a long, extensible suctorial tube in lieu of the buccal mass.
Their prey of siliceous sponges is digested externally and the resulting fluids are sucked into the stomach. Most dendrodorids feed upon non-spiculate sponges.

Dendrodoris albobrunnea - 2, intertidal O1 G1

Dendrodoris atromaculata - 1, C1
Dendrodoris carbunculosa - 1, G1
Dendrodoris coronata - 2, O1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Dendrodoris denisoni - 3, R1 C1 C3 G1 O1

Dendrodoris fumata - 4, intertidal O1 C2
Dendrodoris nigra - 4, intertidal G1 C1 R1 C2

Dendrodoris rainfordi - 1, P1

Dendrodoris sp. 2 - 1, C2

Dendrodoris sp. 3 - 2, G1

Dendrodoris sp. 4 - 2, G1 O1
Dendrodoris tuberculosa - 1, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Doriopsilla miniata - 1, C2 Intertidal

 

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Family Phyllidiidae

The phyllidiids are a very distinctive looking family of nudibranchs.
They have an elongate-ovate shape that is evenly convex in profile.
The mantle skirt is the same width as the foot, but still covers it and the reduced head completely.
The mantle is stiff and tough since it contains spicules (as does the foot and body wall) and the mantle bears stiff tubercles that may be variously coloured. The colour, shape and arrangement of these tubercles are significant features in the identification of species.
Glands that release acrid and toxic chemicals for defensive purposes are located in the mantle.
The oral tentacles may be fused or unfused.
Phyllidiids have a small mouth, with jaw plates and radula absent making them suctorial feeders.
The rhinophores are lamellate and can retract into pockets.
The gills are not borne upon the dorsum, but instead they are simple leaflets located underneath, down each side in the cavity between the mantle and foot (the hyponotum).
The anus is located on the midline of the dorsum posteriorly except for some species of the genus Phyllidia (those that were previously named Fryeria) where instead it opens in the posterior midline below the mantle.
All phyllidiids feed upon sponges and are slow movers.

Ceratophyllidia sp. 1 - 2, M2 New Record Australia
Phyllidia coelestis - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Phyllidia elegans - 4, N1 O1 G1 C3
Phyllidia exquisita - 3, O1 G1 C3 A1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Phyllidia guamensis - 2, G1 A1 New Record Australia

Phyllidia madangensis - 1, G1
Phyllidia ocellata - 5, N1 O1 G1 C3 A1 M2
Phyllidia picta - 3, O1 G1 C3

Phyllidia sp. 1 - 2, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Phyllidia varicosa - 4, O1 G1 C3

Phyllidiella annulata - 2, C3

Phyllidiella cooraburrama - 2, O1 C3
Phyllidiella lizae - 5, N1 O1 G1 C3
Phyllidiella pustulosa - 5, N1 N2 O1 G1 G2 C3 M0 M2 A1

Phyllidiella sp. 2 - 1, G1

Phyllidiella sp. 3 - 1, C3
Phyllidiopsis burni - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Phyllidiopsis cardinalis - 3, G1

Phyllidiopsis fissurata - 2, M2

Phyllidiopsis krempfi - 2, M2 C3
Phyllidiopsis loricata - 2, O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Phyllidiopsis xishaensis - 2, G1

Reticulidia halgerda - 1, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

 

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Family Arminidae

Most arminids have an elongate body that is soft and flattened.
The mantle is usually large, broad, and thick often with strong longitudinal ridges on the upper surface although these may be replaced by irregular pustules or papillae, or even be absent. There are no cerata on the dorsum.
The mantle and foot are approximately the same width, being widest anteriorly and tapering gradually to a rounded or pointed tail. In the genus Armina the mantle is attached posteriorly to the foot.
Numerous glands or cnidosacs can be present along the mantle margin.
Arminids have an oral veil that is distinct in appearance with short tentacular lobes laterally.
Just in front of the rhinophores some species possess a transverse ridge or flap called a caruncle.
The rhinophores are distinctive - possessing a club with compact vertical lamellae and are located quite anteriorly and close together. They are retractile.
Gills are present in the genus Armina but not in the genus Dermatobranchus. In Armina they are located anteriorly down the sides under the mantle brim and are leaf-like in structure whilst medially and posteriorly is a system of intricate lamellate outgrowths performing the same function.
Arminids feed upon soft corals or sea pens.


Armina papillata - 1, M4

Dermatobranchus dendronephthyphagus- 1, C3 New Record sthrn Queensland

Dermatobranchus fasciatus - 2, G1 C3
Dermatobranchus fortunatus - 2, M2 G1 A1

Dermatobranchus funiculus - 2, C1
Dermatobranchus ornatus - 4, N1 O1 C1 C3 G1 A1

Dermatobranchus oculus - 5, intertidal N2 O1 G1 C3 New Record sthrn Qld
Dermatobranchus rodmani - 4, N2, G1 M2 C3

Dermatobranchus semilunus - 2, G1, C3

Dermatobranchus sp. 4 - 1, M2

Dermatobranchus sp. 5 - 2, G1

Dermatobranchus sp. 6 - 1, C1

Dermatobranchus sp. 7 - 4, O1 G1 C3 New Record sthrn Qld

Dermatobranchus sp. 8 - 2, O1, G1

Dermatobranchus sp. 9 - 1, C3

Dermatobranchus tuberculatus - 2, O1

 

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Family Madrellidae

Often mistaken for aeolids but they are anatomically closer to the Arminidae.
Madrellids have an elongate shape which tapers to a pointed tail and a broad mantle with a distinct brim.
The cerata are long, containing branches of the digestive gland and they have a globose distal end.  They are arranged as a fringe all around the body including the anterior margin of the head (never seen in aeolids) and are capable of independent movement. This can give them the appearance of a sea anemone at times. Cnidosacs are absent, but glands producing a vivid yellow or orange fluid when an animal is disturbed, are present at the base of the cerata and over the whole body surface. The cerata can be cast off when the animal is distressed.
There is a large oral veil.
The rhinophores are non-retractile and are characteristic, each having a separate stalk and club. The club is covered with many papillae.

They feed upon encrusting bryozoans.

 

Madrella ferruginosa - 2, intertidal C2, M2

Madrella sanguinea - 1, M2

 

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Family Proctonotidae

The general body shape of proctonotids is elongate and flattened.

The notum carries many slender or swollen or even bulbous cerata which can sometimes be covered in numerous papillae.

A feature that readily distinguishes the Proctonotidae from the aeolid nudibranchs is that the cerata of the proctonotids also arise around the anterior margin of the mantle, forward of the rhinophores, forming an unbroken anterior fringe.

The digestive diverticula often extend into the cerata. The cerata in many species are able to be autotomized, and readily so if provoked.

The mantle is continuously fused with the broad foot which ends in a tapering tail.

The anus opens on the dorsal midline in the posterior half, a feature that also serves to differentiate the proctonotids from the aeolids.

The oral veil of proctonotids is characterized by the possession of tentacular anterior corners of a cylindrical shape.

The rhinophores cannot be retracted and may be smooth or lamellate or even wrinkled. The rhinophores are tall in the genus Janolus but stouter in the genus Caldukia. The Janolus also possess a ridge or caruncle between the rhinophore bases.

There are no separate gill structures.

Proctonotids feed upon bryozoans.

 

Janolus mirabilis - 1, C1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Janolus sp. 1 - 1, B1

Janolus sp. 2 - 1, M2

 

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Family Tritoniidae

The body of tritoniids is usually elongate and soft with a high dorsum that may be rounded or flattened.
The mantle skirt is usually reduced being of the same width or slightly wider or narrower than the foot.
Tritoniids have secondary gills consisting of bushy branches or lacy extensions arranged along the edge of the mantle which are held up or sometimes laid out laterally.
Between the oral tentacles, which may be short and enrolled, the oral veil is fringed anteriorly with numerous finger-like papillae. The oral veil is often bi-lobed.
The rhinophores can contract into a raised sheath. The rim of this sheath can be lobed or scalloped on the flared lip. The rhinophores have a smooth stalk with a distal club consisting of a ring of vertical papillae (palmate).
The diet of tritoniids is mainly soft corals or gorgonians. Some species are very cryptic upon their prey in having gills that closely resemble the polyps of the host upon which they prey.


Marianina rosea - 3, M2 G1
Marionia cyanobranchiata - 3, intertidal C2 C3 G1 M2

Marionia glama - 1, intertidal

Marionia pustulosa - 2, intertidal G2 M2 C2

Marionia rubra - 2, C3

Marionia sp. 1 - 2, M2

Marionia sp. 2 - 1, A1
Tritonia sp. 1
- 3, intertidal O1, C3
Tritonia sp. 2 - 1, O1
Tritonia sp. 3 - 1, G1
Tritoniopsis elegans - 4, O1 G1 C3 C2

 

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Family Bornellidae

The body is soft, narrow, and elongate (almost sinuous) and the mantle skirt is absent.
Along each side of the dorsum are several pairs of cerata-like papillae, sometimes branched, each protecting one or two small bushy gills that are attached near the base medially.
Each side of the mouth an oral tentacle presents as a palm-like paddle bearing five to ten pointed papillae.
The rhinophores have a lamellate club and a tall sheath that is usually branched and resembles the papillae on the body.
Some species are able to swim by lateral flexions of the body so they resemble an eel.
They feed upon small hydroids.

Bornella anguilla - 4, N1 N2 O1 G1 C1 C3 M2

Bornella hermanni - 1, C1
Bornella stellifer - 2, M2 G1

 

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Family Lomanotidae

The body is soft, very slender, and elongate.
Along each side of the mantle edge is a wavy ridge upon which are situated short, pointed cerata. These cerata lack gills, and in fact gill structures are entirely absent in this family.
The rhinophores have transverse lamellae on the club with a blunt knob rising at the distal end. There are tall sheaths surrounding the rhinophores and these sheaths bear papillae around the lip.
They have one or two pairs of oral tentacles but no developed oral veil.
The anterior corners of the foot are tentacular or simply rounded.
All species feed upon hydroids and are cryptic in situ.


Lomanotus vermiformis - 3, O1 G1 C2
Lomanotus sp. 1 - 2, G1 C1

Lomanotus sp. 2 - 2, C1

Lomanotus sp. 3 - 2, C1

Lomanotus sp. 4 - 1, C1

Lomanotus sp. 5 - 1, C1

 

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Family
Hancockiidae
In hancockiids, the body is usually small (< 20 mm extended length).
They have an elongate body shape with a long, narrow foot.
The rhinophores have a tapering club with vertical lamellae and a rounded knob at the end. The rhinophoral sheaths are high, cup-shaped and edged with a number of papillae.
The oral veil is represented by a rounded palm-like plate each side of the mouth bearing a number of finger-like processes.
The mantle skirt is reduced to a small ridge down each side of the body from which arise up to seven pairs of large, compound cerata. Each ceratal cluster is made up of a group of individual cerata in a circular pattern attached to a common base, or rising like the fingers of a hand, the palm of which can form them variously into a cup shape or fan shape.
These cerata are usually carried vertically but may retract or even be laid out laterally.
There may be other filamentous processes arising from the body.
The dorsal surface of the body, rhinophoral sheaths and cerata possess small pustules   containing nematocysts. These nematocysts are used for defence, having being obtained from their hydroid prey.


Hancockia burni - 2, intertidal R1

 

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Family Dotidae
Dotids are small nudibranchs, usually < 15 mm in crawling length.
They have an elongate body that can look stout due to the thick and clustered cerata on the dorsum.
The rhinophores are smooth and tapered with high sheaths. The rim of the sheaths is flared and smooth, but sometimes it has an irregular lip like a spout.
There is a small, rounded oral veil that may be extended slightly laterally.
The cerata are tuberculate, sometimes with a swollen appearance, and arise dorso-laterally along each side of the body. The tubercles are often arranged in circular tiers on the ceratal body. Branches of the digestive gland extend into the cerata.
Small, simple gills are found attached medially to the base of the larger cerata in some species.
Dotids feed upon hydroids by sucking out the fluid contents rather than biting off the actual polyps.


Doto pita - 1, C3

Doto racemosa - 2, C3 New Record Australia
Doto rosacea - 4, O1 C1 New Record Australia
Doto sp. 2 - 2, Oceans surface
Doto sp. 3 - 1, C1

Doto sp. 4 - 1, O1

Doto sp. 5 - 2, intertidal

Kabeiro sp. 1 - 4, G1

 

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Family Scyllaeidae
Scyllaeids have an elongate body that is high in profile and often keel-shaped.
There are one or two, large, flap-like ceratal lobes down each side approximately midway along the body length.
Many irregularly spaced, bushy and transparent gills are located on the inside face of these cerata.
There may be a bilobed oral veil.
The rhinophoral sheaths have a similar appearance to the cerata, although smaller.
Each sheath surrounds a relatively small, clubbed rhinophore. The rhinophoral club bears a few horizontal lamellae and has a knob at the tip. 
All species can swim reasonably well by lateral flexions of the body assisted by the large surface area of the cerata and the rhinophoral sheaths.
They feed on hydroids that are epiphytic upon brown algae and sea grasses.
Some scyllaeids are pelagic in that their food source is found on the brown algae that drift in the ocean currents.


Crosslandia viridis - 2, C3 M2

Notobryon wardi - 1, C1

Scyllaea pelagica - 1, B1 buoy

 

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Family Tethydidae

Tethydids range in size from small to very large, and all have an elongate body.
Their most distinctive feature is a very large, extensible oral hood with fringing tentacles which is used to trap prey.
The rhinophores have very small, lamellate clubs. The rhinophoral sheaths, however, are quite large and cylindrical or flattened to be similar to the cerata.
Each side of the body bears quite large cerata down its length. These are broad and flat except at the base which is more cylindrical. They are often fluid-filled but do not usually have branches of the digestive gland within. In some of the smaller species, the cerata may be tuberculate. The cerata can be shed when the animal is disturbed but they can regenerate.
In most species, the bushy gills are scattered over the inside and outside surface of the cerata or over the whole dorsum. In others, pairs of gills may be attached to the base of the larger cerata.
Some of the larger species can swim with lateral flexions of the body assisted by the large surface area of the erect cerata. This appears to be only an escape response.

They feed upon small crustaceans captured in the oral hood.

 

Melibe japonica - 2, W1


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Family Flabellinidae

Flabellinids are aeolids that have a long, narrow and tapering body, usually with a pointed tail. The body is generally high in profile and the underlying foot is wide.
The anterior corners of the foot are rounded or developed into short blunt tentacles.
The oral tentacles are very long and tapering.
The rhinophores can be either smooth, or have clubs that are papillate or lamellate. There are no basal sheaths.
The eyes are positioned at the base of each rhinophore.
There is usually a mantle brim or ridge running down the dorsal midline which is a mantle remnant.
The cerata, which are usually long and thin, arise in rows or clusters down each side of the body and are either directly inserted onto the body wall or are attached to lobes of varying size.
Each ceras carries a digestive gland branch that continues to the tip ending in a cnidosac containing nematocysts.
There are no separate gill structures with respiration taking place through the thin walls of the body and cerata.
All flabellinids feed on athecate hydroids.


Flabellina angelvaldesi - 5, C1 New Record Australia

Flabellina bicolor - 3, O1 G1 M1
Flabellina bilas - 2, M1 New Record Australia
Flabellina exoptata - 3, O1 A1 G1
Flabellina rubrolineata - 4, M2 O1 G1 C3 A1 N1

Flabellina rubropurpurata - 2, G1 M2

Flabellina sp. 1 - 2, M1, G1

Flabellina sp. 2 - 2, C3

Flabellina sp. 3 - 1, C3

Flabellina sp. 4 - 1, C1

Flabellina sp. 5 - 2, C1

 

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Family Fionidae

Up until December 2016 the family Fionidae contained just a single species, the globally distributed Fiona pinnata. Since the publishing of new molecular phylogeny research, combined with the taxonomic rules of precedence, it is now the largest of the aeolid families taking on board the members of the Tergipedidae, Eubranchidae and Calmidae families.

Fionidae is a family of mostly small species, although a few may be longer than 50 mm crawling length.

They have an elongate body that tapers posteriorly, but that shape may be disguised by the profusion of cerata.

The foot is often wider than the body. The anterior corners are usually rounded, but they can be tentacular in some species.

The oral tentacles are smooth and can range in length from short to long.

The rhinophores are long and usually smooth, but they can be wrinkled in some species.

There is often a distinct pericardial swelling on the dorsum immediately behind the rhinophores.

The cerata are tubular or sometimes fusiform and smooth for the most part, but in some species they appear pleated. The cerata are arranged obliquely down each side of the body and are sometimes positioned upon ridges. In Eubranchus though the cerata are characteristically swollen or inflated in appearance sometimes bearing tubercular swellings and showing a central constriction, or a sub-terminal swelling and are comparatively few in number being arranged in simple rows down each side of the body. In Fiona the cerata possess a characteristic undulating membrane down their inner margin, but do not contain cnidosacs.

Most Fionidae feed upon hydroids, however those members previously known as Phestilla feed upon the hard (scleractinian) corals such as Porites and Tubastraea, and possibly because the nematocysts of these hard corals are unsuitable to use for defence for some reason, there is a swollen glandular region at the tip of the cerata in place of a cnidosac. Fiona feeds on goose barnacles (Lepas spp.) which are attached to floating material, or directly on iothe floating colonial hydroids Physalia and Velella.

Note: The genera Trinchesia, Cuthona (except Cuthona nana), Phestilla and Catriona are synonymized with (replaced by) the genus Tenellia.

 

Eubranchus sp. 2 - 1, intertidal R1

Eubranchus sp. 3 - 1, O1

Eubranchus sp. 4 - 2, C1

Eubranchus sp. 5 - 1, M1

Eubranchus sp. 6 - 1, G1

Eubranchus sp. 7 - 1, C3

Eubranchus sp. 9 - 1, A1

Eubranchus sp. 10 - 1, C1

Eubranchus sp. 11 - 2, G1

Eubranchus sp. 12 - 1, R1

Eubranchus sp. 13 - 1, C1

Eubranchus sp. 14 - 1, C3
Fiona pinnata - 1, intertidal

Myja longicornis - 2, intertidal C1
Tenellia acinosa P31077 - 2, G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Tenellia diversicolor - 1, G1

Tenellia melanobrachia - 4, N1 G1 M0
Tenellia minor - 1, intertidal New Record sthrn Queensland

Tenellia ornata - 1, C3
Tenellia puellula - 2, O1 G1 New Record Australia
Tenellia sibogae - 2, O1 C1 M2
Tenellia sp. 1 - 2, G1
Tenellia sp. 2 - 2, intertidal
Tenellia sp. 3 - 2, G1
Tenellia sp. 4 - 2, intertidal R1

Tenellia sp. 6 - 2, M2 N1

Tenellia sp. 7 - 1, G1

Tenellia sp. 9 - 1, M2

Tenellia sp. 10 - 3, M2

Tenellia sp. 11 - 1, O1

Tenellia sp. 12 - 1, G1

Tenellia sp. 13 - 1, G1

Tenellia sp. 14 - 2, M2

Tenellia sp. 15 - 1, M2

Tenellia sp. 16 - 1, M2

Tenellia sp. 17 - 1, A1

Tenellia sp. 18 - 2, A1 G2

Tenellia sp. 19 - 1, A1

Tenellia sp. 20 - 1, C2

Tenellia sp. 21 - 1, C3

Tenellia sp. 23 - 2, C2

Tenellia sp. 24 - 2, C1

Tenellia sp. 25 - 1, C1

Tenellia sp. 26 - 1, G1

Tenellia sp. 27 - 2, intertidal

Tenellia sp. 28 - 1, C1

Tenellia sp. 29 - 1, C1

Tenellia sp. 30 - 1, C1

Tenellia sp. 31 - 1, C1

Tenellia sp. 32 - 2, C2

Tenellia sp. 33 - 4, intertidal O1 G1

Tenellia sp. 34 - 1, C1

Tenellia sp. 35 - 1, C1

Tenellia sp. 36 - 1, C3

Tenellia sp. 37 - 1, C3

Tenellia sp. 38 - 2, C3

Tenellia sp. 39 - 1, O1

Tenellia sp. 40 - 3, G1 C1
Tenellia sp. 41
- 2, O1

Tenellia sp. 42 - 1, G2

Tenellia sp. 43 - 1, A1

Tenellia sp. 44 - 4, O1 G1 C1

Tergipes sp. 1 - 1, Ocean surface

Tergipes sp. 2 - 2, C1

 

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Family Aeolidiidae

The size of aeolidiids range from small to quite large.
The elongate body may be narrow or broad, and the back is often crowded with cerata.
The foot is usually wider than the body and the anterior corners are enlarged, and either angular or tentacular.
The oral tentacles are usually long.
The rhinophoral structure can be smooth or annulate or with clubs that are lamellate or papillate.
The cerata are often, but not always numerous.  Their shape can vary from flattened to cylindrical and tapering. When distressed, aeolidiids tend to readily cast off their cerata. In most aeolidiids, the cerata are arranged in regular, oblique rows.
The majority prey upon sea anemones.
Species of the genus Cerberilla plough beneath the sand and are dorso-ventrally flattened, clearly an adaptation to that habitat.
Many species of this family have also developed a symbiosis with zooxanthellae obtained when digesting their prey and subsequently “farm” them within special branches of the digestive gland in the body wall. These branches containing the zooxanthellae appear as fine brown reticulations just under the skin.


Anteaeolidiella cacaotica - 2, intertidal
Baeolidia moebii - 2, intertidal R1
Baeolidia sp. 1
- 2, G1

Bulbaeolidia alba - 3, O1 G1 C1 C3 M2

Cerberilla affinis - 1, N1
Cerberilla ambonensis - 2, C1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Cerberilla asamusiensis - 1, M4 New Record Australia
Cerberilla sp. 1 - 1, M2

Limenandra confusa - 2, M2

Spurilla braziliana - 3, intertidal C1 C2

 

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Family Facelinidae

Facelinids range in size from small to large and body shapes are very diverse.
Facelinids have elongate, slender and deep bodies, often with a wide foot and a long tapering tail.
The anterior corners of the foot can be developed into propodial tentacles – either short structures or extremely long filiform structures.
The oral tentacles are usually long and tapering.
In the Facelinidae, the rhinophores have a diverse range of form, from simple, to annulate, to lamellate, or papillate.
There is a diversity of form with the cerata as well. They can be long, or tubular, or tapering, or curved, or only curved apically, or coiled, or club-tipped. Their surface can be smooth, or papillate, or nodulose, or tuberculate.
The arrangement of cerata also varies with rows, multiple rows or arches all being represented in different genera.
Most facelinids feed on hydroids. All genera except Phyllodesmium and Favorinus have cnidosacs in the cerata tips for the storage of nematocysts.
Members of the genus Phyllodesmium feed on soft corals and gorgonians, and have developed modified cerata shape to “farm” zooxanthellae obtained from their prey.
Members of the genus Favorinus feed upon the eggs of other opisthobranchs.
Species of the genus Pteraeolidia are extremely long and slender with very numerous ceratal clusters. It has been observed feeding upon hydroids, but is also capable of storing symbiotic zooxanthellae.
There are no specific gill structures.
They are usually fast moving and can be of an aggressive nature.

Austraeolis ornata - 2, intertidal R1 C2

Caloria indica - 3, O1 G1

Caloria sp. 1 - 1, C1

Cratena affinis - 3, O1 G1
Cratena lineata
- 2, O1 intertidal R1 B1
Cratena simba - 2, intertidal N1 O1 G1 New Record sthrn Queensland

Cratena sp. 2 - 2, G1 M2 New Record sthrn Queensland

Cratena sp. 3 - 1, C1

Cratena sp. 4 - 1, C1

Facelina bourailli - 4, intertidal G1 C1
Facelina sp. 1
- 1, G1
Facelina sp. 2 - 2, O1 G1
Facelina sp. 3 - 2, G1
Facelina sp. 4 - 1, G1

Facelina sp. 6 - 1, C3

Facelina sp. 7 - 2, O1

Facelina sp. 8 - 1, C1

Facelina sp. 9 - 1, C1

Facelina sp. 10 - 1, C1

Facelina sp. 11 - 1, C1
Favorinus japonicus - 2, O1
Favorinus sp. 1 - 2, O1
Favorinus sp. 2
- 3, O1 G1

Favorinus sp. 3 - 1, C1

Favorinus tsuruganus - 2, M2
Godiva quadricolor - 4, C2 New Record eastern Australia

Godiva sp. 1 - 1, C1
Herviella albida - 2, intertidal
Herviella claror - 3, intertidal C2
Moridilla brockii - 2, M2

Noumeaella sp. 1 - 1, C1

Noumeaella sp. 2 - 1, C1

Phyllodesmium acanthorhinum - 2, C1 C2
Phyllodesmium colemani - 3, C3 O1 New Record sthrn Queensland
Phyllodesmium crypticum - 3, intertidal O1 C1

Phyllodesmium hyalinum - 1, O1

Phyllodesmium karenae - 2, C1 M2
Phyllodesmium koehleri - 2, O1 C3 New Record Australia
Phyllodesmium macphersonae - 3, O1 G1 C3 New Record sthrn Qld
Phyllodesmium magnum - 3, O1 G1
G2 C3 A1

Phyllodesmium opalescens - 2, C1

Phyllodesmium poindimiei - 2, M2 B1
Phyllodesmium sp. 1- 1, O1
Phyllodesmium sp. 2
- 3, intertidal O1

Phyllodesmium sp. 5 - 1, M1

Phyllodesmium sp. 7 - 1, A1

Pleurolidia juliae - 4, O1 C3 G1
Pteraeolidia semperi - 5, intertidal N1 O1 G1 C3 C1 M2

Sakuraeolis nungunoides - 2, M2 C1

 

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Family Babakinidae

The family Babakinidae contains only the genus Babakina.

The body shape is broad to tapering posteriorly with a distinct ridge at the edge of the dorsum, the foot being narrower than the body. Anteriorly the foot is developed each side into tentacular corners.

There are well developed oral tentacles that taper from a wide base.

The rhinophores are comparatively large, perfoliate (covered with papillae except for the anterior face) with a distal knob and share a common base or stalk. This fused base is characteristic.

The numerous cerata cover the dorsum densely but are not arranged into any distinct clusters. The branches of the digestive gland that penetrate the cerata may or may not be visible.

Babakinids are thought to feed upon hydroids.

 

Babakina indopacifica - 2, C3 G1 M2

 

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Family Glaucidae

There is only one genus and two species in this family.
Both species are pelagic in that they live and feed upon surface-floating hosts, the colonial hydroids such as Physalia (bluebottles), Porpita and Velella.
They float upside-down in the ocean utilizing a gas bubble in their stomach for buoyancy which is usually visible on the ventral (uppermost) surface of the body.
The oral tentacles and rhinophores are much diminished compared to other aeolids.
The cerata are arranged in rows on the ends of 3 or 4 lateral lobes down each side of the body like the fingers of a hand. These rows are arranged in a single plane in the species Glaucus atlanticus, but as multiple rows in G. marginatus. The anterior lobes are so large they give the animal a T-shaped appearance.
The cerata, as with most aeolids, possess nematocysts stored in the tip that are used in defence having been obtained from their prey during feeding.
They are able to ‘swim’ by rowing the lateral lobes and by bending the body up and down.
There are no special gill structures.

They have a worldwide distribution in the tropical and warm temperate zones due to the floating lifestyle and are often found washed up on ocean beaches together with their prey.


Glaucus atlanticus - 3, intertidal
Glaucus bennettae - 3, intertidal

 

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Flatworms and slug imposters
Acoel turbellarian - 4, N1 O1 G1
Acotylean/Stylochid? - 1, intertidal
Coriocella nigra - 1, O1
Cycloporus cf. harlequin - 1, intertidal
Cycloporus new sp. - 1, intertidal
Cycloporus sp. - 1, intertidal
Cypraea talpa - 1, G1
Echinoplana celerrima - 3, intertidal
Euryleptid sp. 1 - 1, intertidal
Lamellaria
sp. - 2, intertidal
Maritigrella eschara - 2, O1 G1
Maritrigrella funcopuncata - 1, O1
Onchidium daemelli - 5, intertidal
Paraplanocera oligoglena - 5, intertidal
Pseudobiceros bedfordi - 3, O1 G1
Pseudobiceros cf. gamblei - 4, intertidal
Pseudobiceros damawan - 5, O1
Pseudobiceros fulgor - 4, G1
Pseudobiceros gratus - 5, G1
Pseudobiceros hancockanus - 5, G1
Pseudobiceros hymanae
- 3, O1 G1
Pseudobiceros murinus - 1, G1
Pseudobiceros susanae - 1, G1
Pseudobiceros uniarborensis - 1, G1
Pseudoceros bimarginatus - 2 O1
Pseudoceros ferrugineus - 1 O1
Pseudoceros paralaticlavus - 2 intertidal G1
Pseudoceros cf. prudhoei - 1, intertidal
Pseudoceros heronensis - 1, intertidal
Pseudoceros imitatus - 1 O1
Pseudoceros indicus - 1, intertidal
Pseudoceros leptostichus - 2, O1
Pseudoceros rubronanus - 1, intertidal
Pseudoceros scintillatus - 2, O1
Pseudoceros sp. - 1, Darwin
Pseudoceros sp. - 2, O1 G1
Pseudoceros sp. - 1, intertidal
Pseudoceros sp. - 1, intertidal
Pseudoceros sp. - 1, G1
Pseudoceros sp. - 1, O1
Pseudoceros sp. - 1, O1
Scutus antipodes - 5, G1 intertidal
Stylochid - 1, intertidal
Stylochid juvenile? - 1, intertidal
Stylochus sp. - 1, intertidal
Thysanozoon sp. 3 - 1, intertidal
Undescribed sp. - 3, intertidal
Undescribed sp. - 1, G1
Undescribed sp. - 1, G1
Undescribed sp. - 1, G
1

 

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Species List in Alphabetical Order


 

Actinocyclus verrucosus

Aegires citrinus

Aegires exeches

Aegires flores

Aegires gardineri

Aegires hapsis

Aegires incusus

Aegires pruvotfolae

Aegires villosus

Aglaja sp. 2

Aglaja sp. 3

Aliculastrum cylindricum

Anteaeolidiella cacaotica

Aplysia argus

Aplysia extraordinaria

Aplysia kurodai

Aplysia parvula

Aplysia sowerbyi

Ardeadoris angustolutea

Ardeadoris averni

Ardeadoris carlsoni

Ardeadoris electra

Ardeadoris egretta

Ardeadoris rubroannulata

Ardeadoris sp. 1

Ardeadoris sp. 2

Ardeadoris symmetrica

Armina papillata

Ascobulla fischeri

Atagema albata

Atagema ornata

Atagema sp. 1

Atagema sp. 2

Atagema sp. 3

Atagema spongiosa

Atys semistriatus

Atys sp. 1

Atys sp. 2

Atys sp. 4

Atys sp. 5

Atys sp. 6

Atys sp. 7

Austraeolis ornata

 

Babakina indopacifica

Baeolidia moebii

Baeolidia sp. 1

Berthelinia limax

Berthella martensi

Berthella stellata

Berthellina citrina

Bornella anguilla

Bornella hermanni

Bornella stellifer

Bulbaeolidia alba

Bulla angasi

Bulla punctulata

Bulla vernicosa

Bullina lineata

Bursatella leachii

 

Cadlina sp. 1

Cadlinella ornatissima

Caloria indica

Caloria sp. 1

Carminodoris estrelyado

Carminodoris nodulosa

Carminodoris sp. 1

Carminodoris sp. 2

Carminodoris sp. 3

Ceratophyllidia sp. 1

Ceratosoma amoenum

Ceratosoma sp. 1

Ceratosoma tenue

Ceratosoma trilobatum

Cerberilla affinis

Cerberilla ambonensis

Cerberilla asamusiensis

Cerberilla sp. 1

Chelidonura electra

Chelidonura fulvipunctata

Chelidonura hirundinina

Chelidonura inornata

Chelidonura sp. 1

Chelidonura sp. 2

Chromodoris annae

Chromodoris aspersa

Chromodoris boucheti

Chromodoris burni

Chromodoris colemani

Chromodoris elisabethina

Chromodoris kuiteri

Chromodoris lochi

Chromodoris magnifica

Chromodoris sp. 1

Chromodoris sp. 2

Chromodoris sp. 3

Chromodoris sp. 4

Chromodoris striatella

Chromodoris strigata

Chromodoris willani

Colinatys sp. 1

Colpodaspis thompsoni

Costasiella kuroshimae

Costasiella sp. 1

Cratena affinis

Cratena lineata

Cratena simba

Cratena sp. 2

Cratena sp. 3

Cratena sp. 4

Crimora edwardsi

Crimora sp. 1

Crosslandia viridis

Cyerce bourbonica

Cyerce kikutarobabai

Cyerce nigra

Cyerce nigricans

Cyerce sp. 1

Cyerce sp. 2

 

Dendrodoris albobrunnea

Dendrodoris atromaculata
Dendrodoris carbunculosa

Dendrodoris coronata

Dendrodoris denisoni

Dendrodoris fumata

Dendrodoris nigra

Dendrodoris rainfordi

Dendrodoris sp. 2

Dendrodoris sp. 3

Dendrodoris sp. 4

Dendrodoris tuberculosa

Dermatobranchus dendronephthyphagus

Dermatobranchus fasciatus

Dermatobranchus fortunatus

Dermatobranchus funiculus

Dermatobranchus oculus

Dermatobranchus ornatus

Dermatobranchus rodmani

Dermatobranchus semilunus

Dermatobranchus sp. 4

Dermatobranchus sp. 5

Dermatobranchus sp. 6

Dermatobranchus sp. 7

Dermatobranchus sp. 8

Dermatobranchus sp. 9

Dermatobranchus tuberculatus

Diacavolinia longirostris

Diaphorodoris sp. 1

Discodoris boholiensis

Discodoris cebuensis

Discodoris coerulescens

Discodoris lilacina

Discodoris sp. 1

Discodoris sp. 3

Discodoris sp. 4

Diversidoris aurantionodulosa

Diversidoris crocea

Diversidoris flava

Diversidoris sp. 1

Dolabella auricularia

Dolabrifera brazieri

Dolabrifera dolabrifera

Doriopsilla miniata

Doriprismatica atromarginata

Doriprismatica dendrobranchia

Doriprismatica sibogae

Doris immonda

Doris pecten

Doris sp. 1

Doris viridis

Doto pita

Doto racemosa

Doto rosacea

Doto sp. 2

Doto sp. 3

Doto sp. 4

Doto sp. 5

 

Elysia asbecki

Elysia bangtawaensis

Elysia coodgeensis

Elysia maoria

Elysia marginata

Elysia obtusa

Elysia pusilla

Elysia sp. 2

Elysia sp. 4

Elysia sp. 5

Elysia sp. 6

Elysia sp. 7

Elysia sp. 9

Elysia sp. 10

Elysia sp. 11

Elysia sp. 12

Elysia sp. 13

Elysia sp. 14

Elysia sp. 15

Elysia sp. 16

Elysia sp. 17

Elysia sp. 18

Elysia thompsoni

Elysia tomentosa
Elysia yaeyamana

Ercolania sp. 1

Eubranchus sp. 2

Eubranchus sp. 3

Eubranchus sp. 4
Eubranchus sp. 5

Eubranchus sp. 6

Eubranchus sp. 7

Eubranchus sp. 9

Eubranchus sp. 10

Eubranchus sp. 11

Eubranchus sp. 12

Eubranchus sp. 13

Eubranchus sp. 14

Euselenops luniceps

 

Facelina bourailli

Facelina sp. 1

Facelina sp. 2

Facelina sp. 3

Facelina sp. 4

Facelina sp. 6

Facelina sp. 7

Facelina sp. 8

Facelina sp. 9

Facelina sp. 10

Facelina sp. 11

Favorinus japonicus

Favorinus sp. 1

Favorinus sp. 2

Favorinus sp. 3

Favorinus tsuruganus

Fiona pinnata

Flabellina angelvaldesi

Flabellina bicolor

Flabellina bilas

Flabellina exoptata

Flabellina rubrolineata

Flabellina rubropurpurata

Flabellina sp. 1

Flabellina sp. 2

Flabellina sp. 3

Flabellina sp. 4

Flabellina sp. 5

 

Geitodoris sp. 1

Geitodoris sp. 2

Glaucus atlanticus

Glaucus bennettae

Glossodoris aeruginosa

Glossodoris cincta

Glossodoris hikuerensis

Glossodoris rufomarginata

Glossodoris sp. 1

Glossodoris sp. 3

Glossodoris sp. 4

Glossodoris vespa

Godiva quadricolor

Godiva sp. 1

Goniobranchus albonares

Goniobranchus albopunctatus

Goniobranchus alius

Goniobranchus aureopurpureus

Goniobranchus coi

Goniobranchus collingwoodi

Goniobranchus conchyliatus

Goniobranchus daphne

Goniobranchus decorus

Goniobranchus geometricus

Goniobranchus kuniei

Goniobranchus leopardus

Goniobranchus reticulatus

Goniobranchus roboi

Goniobranchus rufomaculatus

Goniobranchus splendidus

Goniobranchus sp. 1

Goniobranchus sp. 2

Goniobranchus sp. 3

Goniobranchus sp. 4

Goniobranchus sp. 5

Goniobranchus tinctorius

Goniobranchus verrieri

Goniobranchus vibratus

Goniodoridella savignyi

Goniodoridella sp. 1

Goniodoridella sp. 2

Goniodoridella sp. 3

Goniodoridella sp. 4

Goniodoridella sp. 5

Goniodoridella sp. 6

Goniodoris joubini

Goniodoris sp. 1

Goniodoris sp. 2

Goniodoris sp. 3

Goniodoris sp. 4

Gymnodoris alba

Gymnodoris amakusanum

Gymnodoris bicolor

Gymnodoris ceylonica

Gymnodoris nigricolor

Gymnodoris okinawae

Gymnodoris sp. 1

Gymnodoris sp. 2

Gymnodoris sp. 3

Gymnodoris sp. 4

Gymnodoris sp. 5

Gymnodoris sp. 6

Gymnodoris sp. 7

Gymnodoris sp. 8

Gymnodoris sp. 9

Gymnodoris sp. 10

Gymnodoris sp. 11

Gymnodoris sp. 12

Gymnodoris sp. 13

Gymnodoris sp. 14

Gymnodoris sp. 15

Gymnodoris sp. 16

Gymnodoris sp. 17

 

Halgerda albocristata

Halgerda aurantiomaculata

Halgerda brunneomaculata

Halgerda elegans

Halgerda sp. 1

Halgerda sp. 2

Halgerda sp. 3

Halgerda tessellata

Halgerda willeyi

Hallaxa cryptica

Hallaxa fuscescens

Hallaxa iju

Hallaxa indecora

Hallaxa translucens

Hamineoa crocata

Haminoea fusca

Haminoea sp. 1

Haminoea sp. 2

Haminoea sp. 3

Haminoea sp. 4

Haminoea sp. 5

Haminoea sp. 6

Haminoea sp. 7

Haminoea sp. 8

Haminoea sp. 9

Hancockia burni

Hermaea sp. 2

Hermaea sp. 3

Hermaea sp. 4

Hermaea sp. 5

Hermaea sp. 6

Hermaea sp. 7

Herviella albida

Herviella claror

Hexabranchus sanguineus

Hydatina ampulstre

Hydatina physis

Hypselodoris apolegma

Hypselodoris babai

Hypselodoris bennetti

Hypselodoris bullockii

Hypselodoris emma

Hypselodoris godeffroyana

Hypselodoris iacula

Hypselodoris jacksoni

Hypselodoris kanga

Hypselodoris maculosa

Hypselodoris maritima

Hypselodoris obscura

Hypselodoris placida

Hypselodoris sagamiensis

Hypselodoris sp. 2

Hypselodoris sp. 3

Hypselodoris sp. 4

Hypselodoris sp. 5

Hypselodoris sp. 6

Hypselodoris tryoni

Hypselodoris whitei

Hypselodoris zephyra

 

Ilbia ilbi

 

Janolus mirabilis

Janolus sp. 1

Janolus sp. 2

Japonacteon suturalis

Jorunna funebris

Jorunna pantherina

Jorunna parva

Jorunna ramicola

Jorunna sp. 1

Jorunna sp. 2

Jorunna sp. 3

Jorunna sp. 5

Jorunna sp. 6

Julia exquisita

 

Kaloplocamus acutus

Kaloplocamus dokte

Kaloplocamus peludo

Kaloplocamus sp. 1

Kabeiro sp. 1

 

Liloa brevis

Liloa sp. 1

Liloa sp. 2

Limenandra confusa

Lobiger sp. 1

Lobiger viridis

Lomanotus sp. 1

Lomanotus sp. 2

Lomanotus sp. 3

Lomanotus sp. 4

Lomanotus sp. 5

Lomanotus vermiformis

 

Madrella ferruginosa

Madrella sanguinea

Marianina rosea

Marionia cyanobranchiata

Marionia glama

Marionia pustulosa

Marionia rubra

Marionia sp. 1

Marionia sp. 2

Melanochlamys sp. 1

Melibe japonica

Mexichromis aurora

Mexichromis festiva

Mexichromis macropus

Mexichromis mariei

Mexichromis pusilla

Mexichromis trilineata

Miamira magnifica

Miamira moloch

Miamira sinuata

Micromelo undatus

Mnestia sp. 1

Moridilla brockii

Murphydoris sp. 1

Myja longicornis

 

Nembrotha lineolata

Nembrotha livingstonei

Nembrotha purpureolineata

Nembrotha rosannulata

Notobryon wardi

Noumeaella sp. 1

Noumeaella sp. 2

 

Okenia brunneomaculata

Okenia hallucigenia

Okenia liklik

Okenia pellucida

Okenia plana

Okenia rhinorma

Okenia sp. 1

Okenia sp. 2

Okenia sp. 3

Okenia sp. 4

Onchidoris sp. 1

Oxynoe sp. 1

Oxynoe viridis

 

Paradoris dubia

Peltodoris sp. 1

Petalifera sp. 1

Petalifera sp. 2

Philine angasi

Philine orca

Philine rubrata

Philine sp. 1

Philine trapezia

Philinopsis falciphallus

Philinopsis gardineri

Philinopsis lineolata

Philinopsis orientalis

Philinopsis pilsbryi

Philinopsis reticulata

Philinopsis sp. 1

Philinopsis sp. 2

Philinopsis speciosa

Philinopsis taronga

Phyllaplysia sp. 1

Phyllaplysia sp. 2

Phyllaplysia sp. 3

Phyllidia coelestis

Phyllidia elegans

Phyllidia exquisita

Phyllidia guamensis

Phyllidia madangensis

Phyllidia ocellata

Phyllidia picta

Phyllidia sp. 1

Phyllidia varicosa

Phyllidiella annulata

Phyllidiella cooraburrama

Phyllidiella lizae

Phyllidiella pustulosa

Phyllidiella sp. 2

Phyllidiella sp. 3
Phyllidiopsis burni

Phyllidiopsis cardinalis

Phyllidiopsis fissurata

Phyllidiopsis krempfi

Phyllidiopsis loricata

Phyllidiopsis xishaensis

Phyllodesmium acanthorhinum

Phyllodesmium colemani

Phyllodesmium crypticum

Phyllodesmium hyalinum

Phyllodesmium karenae

Phyllodesmium koehleri

Phyllodesmium macphersonae

Phyllodesmium magnum

Phyllodesmium opalescens

Phyllodesmium poindimiei

Phyllodesmium sp. 1

Phyllodesmium sp. 2

Phyllodesmium sp. 5

Phyllodesmium sp. 7

Placida cremoniana

Placida sp. 1

Plakobranchus sp. 1

Platydoris cruenta

Platydoris ellioti

Platydoris formosa

Platydoris inframaculata

Platydoris inornata

Platydoris sabulosa

Platydoris sanguinea

Pleurobranchus albiguttutus

Pleurobranchus caledonicus

Pleurobranchus forskalii

Pleurobranchus grandis

Pleurobranchus peronii

Pleurobranchus weberi

Pleurolidia juliae

Plocamopherus ceylonicus

Plocamopherus imperialis

Plocamopherus pecoso

Plocamopherus sp. 1

Plocamopherus tilesii

Polybranchia orientalis

Polycera melanosticta

Polycera risbeci

Polycera sp. 1

Polycera sp. 2

Polycera sp. 3

Polycera sp. 4

Pteraeolidia semperi

Pupa affinis

Pupa solidula

Pupa sulcata

 

Reticulidia halgerda

Retusa sp. 1

Retusa sp. 2

Retusa sp. 3

Retusa sp. 4

Ringicula sp. 1

Ringicula sp. 2

Ringicula sp. 3

Ringicula sp. 4
Roboastra gracilis

Roboastra luteolineata

Rostanga crawfordi

Rostanga arbutus

Rostanga bifurcata

Rostanga sp. 1

Rostanga sp. 2

Runcina fijiensis

Runcina sp. 1
Runcina sp. 2

 

Sagaminopteron ornatum

Sagaminopteron psychedelicum

Sakuraeolis nungunoides

Sclerodoris apiculata

Sclerodoris coriacea

Sclerodoris sp. 1

Sclerodoris sp. 2

Sclerodoris sp. 3

Sclerodoris sp. 4

Sclerodoris sp. 5

Sclerodoris sp. 6

Sclerodoris sp. 7

Sclerodoris sp. 8

Sclerodoris sp. 9

Sclerodoris sp. 10

Sclerodoris tarka

Sclerodoris tuberculata

Scyllaea pelagica

Sebadoris fragilis

Siphopteron makisig

Siphopteron sp. 1

Siphopteron sp. 2

Siphopteron sp. 4

Siphopteron tigrinum

Spurilla braziliana

Stiliger aureomarginatus

Stiliger sp. 1

Stylocheilus longicauda

Stylocheilus striatus

 

Tamanovalva sp. 1

Tamanovalva sp. 2

Tambja amakusana

Tambja limaciformis

Tambja morosa

Tambja sp. 1

Tambja sp. 2

Tambja tenuilineata

Tambja victoriae

Tenellia acinosa

Tenellia diversicolor

Tenellia melanobrachia

Tenellia minor

Tenellia ornata

Tenellia puellula

Tenellia sibogae

Tenellia sp. 1

Tenellia sp. 2

Tenellia sp. 3

Tenellia sp. 4

Tenellia sp. 6

Tenellia sp. 7

Tenellia sp. 9

Tenellia sp. 10

Tenellia sp. 11

Tenellia sp. 12

Tenellia sp. 13

Tenellia sp. 14

Tenellia sp. 15

Tenellia sp. 16

Tenellia sp. 17

Tenellia sp. 18

Tenellia sp. 19

Tenellia sp. 20

Tenellia sp. 21

Tenellia sp. 23

Tenellia sp. 24

Tenellia sp. 25

Tenellia sp. 26

Tenellia sp. 27

Tenellia sp. 28

Tenellia sp. 29

Tenellia sp. 30

Tenellia sp. 31

Tenellia sp. 32

Tenellia sp. 33

Tenellia sp. 34

Tenellia sp. 35

Tenellia sp. 36

Tenellia sp. 37

Tenellia sp. 38

Tenellia sp. 39

Tenellia sp. 40

Tenellia sp. 41

Tenellia sp. 42

Tenellia sp. 43

Tenellia sp. 44

Tergipes sp. 1

Tergipes sp. 2

Thordisa albomacula

Thordisa tahala

Thordisa verrucosa

Thordisa villosa

Thorunna australis

Thorunna daniellae

Thorunna florens

Thorunna furtiva

Thorunna halourga

Thorunna montrouzieri

Thorunna sp. 1

Thorunna sp. 2

Thorunna sp. 3

Thorunna sp. 4

Thorunna sp. 5

Thuridilla albopustulosa

Thuridilla carlsoni

Thuridilla gracilis

Thuridilla hoffae

Thuridilla livida

Thuridilla multimarginata

Thuridilla neona

Thuridilla sp. 1

Thuridilla sp. 2

Thuridilla sp. 3

Thuridilla sp. 4

Thuridilla sp. 5

Thuridilla splendens

Thuridilla vatae

Tornatina sp. 1

Tornatina sp. 2

Tornatina sp. 3

Tornatina sp. 4

Tornatina sp. 5

Tornatina sp. 6

Trapania brunnea

Trapania euryeia

Trapania gibbera

Trapania japonica

Trapania miltabrancha

Trapania scurra

Trapania sp. 1

Trapania sp. 2

Trapania vitta

Tritonia sp. 1

Tritonia sp. 2

Tritonia sp. 3

Tritoniopsis elegans

Tylodina corticalis

 

Umbraculum umbraculum

 

Vayssierea felis

Verconia alboannulata

Verconia decussata

Verconia haliclona

Verconia laboutei

Verconia norba

Verconia romeri

Verconia simplex

Verconia sp. 2

Verconia varians

Verconia verconiforma

Volvatella angeliniana

Volvatella sp. 1

 

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